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Studies

Watson (1930): study US 1928

Publication

Author(s):
Watson, G.
Title:
Happiness Among Adult Students of Education.
Source:
Journal of Educational Psychology, 1930, Vol. 21, 79 - 109

Investigation

Public:
Graduate students of education (teachers), Columbia University, USA, 192?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 388
Non Response:
-
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Lowly structured

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

"Among the following description arranged in miscellaneous order, choose the one which comes nearest to fitting you. None will be likely to fit exactly."
3  Finding life rather disappointing and disillusioning, comfortable  in many ways, moderately successful, but far from  realizing the hopes of youth.
9  Cheerful, gay spirits most of the time. Occasionally bothered by something but can usually laugh it off.
8  Calm, quiet sort of satisfaction. Life has been pretty good. Not everything one desires comes, of course, but on the whole there is much for which to be serenely thankful.
5  Ups and downs, now happy about things, now depressed. About balanced in the long run.
1  Life often seems so worthless that there is little to keep one going. Nothing matters very much, there has been so much of hurt that laughter would be empty mockery.
2  Keeping a brave front, others think everything is all right. Inside life seems rather black.
1  Usually sad, weep readily, smile seldom.
11  Radiant, find every day full of interest, amusing things, and  worthwhile things.
3  Seriously hurt by certain things, for which the good aspects of life cannot quite make up.
5  Quite objective. Like some experiences, dislike others. Not aware of any prevalent happiness or unhappiness.
Classification:
O-HP-u-sq-v-10-a
Author's label:
Happiness
Full text:
Selfreport on open question:

Now write in your own words a sentence of two, something which you believe will most truly describe your own general happiness in life.

The answers were rated by three judges on a scale ranging from 0 to 10.
0   low
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  high
Classification:
O-HL-g-oq-n-11-a
Author's label:
Happiness
Full text:
Selfreport on 50 questions:

Below is a list of words and phrases. Check every term which you believe could fairly be applied to yourself in prevalent attitudes. (yes/no)

A  Enthusiastic     
B  Morbid
C  Disappointed
D  Distressed        
E  Cheerful
F   Prosperous
G  Frivolous
H  Troubled    
I   Annoyed
J   Calm
K   Miserable
L   Thrilled
M   Irritable
N   Buoyant
O   Joyful
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
AX

The total list contained fifty adjectives, half positive and half negative

Scoring:
yes = +1
no = -1

Summation: number of happy traits mentioned minus number of unhappy traits mentioned.

Possible range: - 50  to  + 50
Classification:
A-BW-g-mq-v-2-a
Author's label:
Happiness

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Intelligence Test-intelligence Perceived happy image Perceived reputation of happiness Popularity with samesex Popularity with same sex Popularity with opposite sex Popularity with opposite sex