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Studies

Morgan et al. (1919): study US 1917

Publication

Author(s):
Morgan, E.; Mull, H.K.; Washburn, M.F.
Title:
An Attempt to Test Moods or Temperaments of Cheerfulness and Depression by Directed Recall of Emotionally Toned Experiences.
Source:
American Journal of Psychology, 1919, Vol. 30, 302 - 304

Investigation

Public:
Female students, college USA, 191?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 97
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Open interview during five successive days, using a verbal projective technique

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Peer rating on the basis of two questions:

A. "Is S inclined to be ... most of the time?"
b  optimistic and cheerful
a  pessimistic and depressed

B. "Is she ... in mood?"
a  steady
b  fluctuating

Ss were classified as:
5 steadily optimistic
4  variable tending to optimism
3  indifferent or fluctuating
2  variable tending to pessimism
1  steadily pessimistic.
Classification:
A-CP-g-rdp-v-5-a
Author's label:
Optimism.

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Pleasant associations. Positive reacting