print

Studies

Lepper (1998): study US California 1993

Publication

Author(s):
Lepper, H.S.
Title:
Use of Other-Reports to Validate Subjective Well-Being Measures.
Source:
Social Indicators Research, 1998, Vol. 44, 367 - 379

Investigation

Public:
Retirees, Southern California, USA, followed 9 months199?
Sample:
Non-probability chunk sample
Respondents:
N = 971
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Mailed questionnaire

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3   very happy
2   pretty happy
1   not too happy
Classification:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-a
Author's label:
Global happiness
Remarks:
T1    M=    1,22    SD= 0,58   ,  T2 M= 1,29  SD=    0,60

Rating by significant other using he same question yields almost identical means (T1 M = 1,24, T2 M= 1,28)
Page in publication:
371
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 3 On range 0-10
Mean:
1.22
SD:
0.58
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
6  all of the time
5  most of the time
4  a good bit of the time
3  some of the time
2  a little of the time
1  none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form)
Classification:
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-a
Author's label:
Recent Happiness
Remarks:
T1: M =   3,54 , SD =  0,89  ,T2  M= 3,54  SD=  0,90
Page in publication:
371-3
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 6 On range 0-10
Mean:
3.54
SD:
0.89
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as?
1  very unhappy
2  unhappy
3  unhappy
4  mixed
5  happy
6  happy
7  very happy

Verbal label 'unhappy' used for numerical options 2 and 3 together. Likewise verbal label 'happy'used for both numerical options 5 and 6.
Classification:
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-e
Author's label:
General Happiness
Remarks:
T1    M=  5,24  SD=  0,97  , T2   M=  5,47  SD=   0,91
Rating by significant other using the same question yields almost identical (T1 M=5,28 T2 M= 5,41
Page in publication:
371
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
Mean:
5.24
SD:
0.97
Full text:
Selfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  (yes/no)
A   Particularly excited or interested in something?
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something  
     you had done?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
F   Bored?
G   On top of the world?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
I    That things were going your way?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no  = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Classification:
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Author's label:
Affect Balance Scale
Remarks:
                                  T1                     T2
                                  Mean   SD        Mean   SD

Positive Affect            0,74     0,27      0,78    0,26
Negative Affect          0,15     0,23      0,13    0,21
Affect Balance            0,59                  0,65
Page in publication:
371-3
Error estimates:
Reliability coefficient: positive affect = 0.69, negative affect = 0,65 Rating by significant other almost identical (ABS = 0,64)
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range -5 - 5 On range 0-10
Mean:
0.59 5.59
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

'How satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole ....?'
4  completely satisfied
3  very satisfied
2  moderately satisfied
1  slightly satisfied
0  not satisfied at all
Classification:
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-c
Author's label:
Satisfaction with life scale
Remarks:
T1    M =  4,15     SD= 5,36          T2 M=  4,26  SD=    1,01   
Rating by significant other using the same question yields almost identical means (T1 = 4,29     T2 M=   4,12 )
Page in publication:
371
Error estimates:
reliability coefficient = 0,89,
Full text:
Self report on three questions:

A  During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
    6  all of the time
    5  most of the time
    4  a good bit of the time
    3  some of the time
    2  a little of the time
    1  none of the time
B  Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as…?"
    1  very unhappy
    2  unhappy
    3  unhappy
    4  mixed
    5  happy
    6  happy
    7  very happy
C  Taking all together, how would you say things are these days?
     3   very happy
     2   pretty happy
     1   not too happy
Classification:
O-HL---mq-v-16-a
Author's label:
happiness
Remarks:
Index of the measures for global happiness, recent happiness and general happiness
Wave 1 SD = 0,65
Wave 2 SD = 0,03
Page in publication:
372
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%,   8: 0%,   9: 0%,   10: 0%,   11: 0%,   12: 0%,   13: 0%,   14: 0%,   15: 0%,   16: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 3 - 16 On range 0-10
SD:
0.65
Full text:
Various self reports and informant rating

A   Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester:
      a  In most ways my life is close to ideal
      b  The conditions of my life are excellent
      c  I am satisfied with my life
      d  So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
      e  If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
      Answers rated: 7  strongly agree ...1  strongly disagree
      (Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B   Selfreport on 24 questions:
      How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
      BA  LOVE
      a     Affection
      b     love
      c     caring
      d     fondness
      BB  JOY
      a     joy
      b     happiness
      c     contentment
      d     pride
      BC  FEAR
      a     fear
      b     worry
      c     anxiety
      d     nervous
      BD  ANGER
      a     anger
      b     irritation
      c     disgust
      d     rage
      BE  SHAME
      a     shame
      b     guilt
      c     regret
      d     embarrassment
      BF   SADNESS
      a     sadness
      b     loneliness
      c     unhappiness
      d     depression
      Rated: 0 = not at all ….6 extremely much
      Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4

C   Rating of B by five informants

D  Selfreport of daily affect on B

Summation: z-scores
Classification:
M-AO---mqr-*-0-a
Author's label:
SWB index
Page in publication:
372
Full text:
Rating by intimate on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did  X ever feel ....?  (yes/no)
A   Particularly excited or interested in something?
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something  
     you had done?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
F   Bored?
G   On top of the world?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
I    That things were going your way?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no  = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' ( other rating version)
Classification:
A-BB-cm-rdv-v-2-a
Author's label:
Affect Balance
Remarks:
                                 T1                     T2
                                  Mean   SD        Mean   SD

Positive Affect             0,79    0,28       0,80   0,26
Negative Affect           0,15    0,24       0,13   0,22
Affect Balance            0,64                   0,67
Page in publication:
371-3
Error estimates:
Self rating using the same question almost identical (ABS = 0,59)
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range -5 - 5 On range 0-10
Mean:
0.64
Full text:
Rating by intimates on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
6  all of the time
5  most of the time
4  a good bit of the time
3  some of the time
2  a little of the time
1  none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form), other rating version
Classification:
M-TH-cm-rdv-v-6-a
Author's label:
Recent happiness
Remarks:
T1: M=   3,54 , SD =  0,90 ,       T2:   M=  3,55  SD=  0,90
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 6 On range 0-10
Mean:
3.54
SD:
0.90

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Smoking habits Use of tobacco Sleep disturbances Quality of sleep
Amount of sleep
Over time correlation from wave 1 to wave 2 (9-month lag) Recent happiness (< 1 year ago) Other reports for SWB measures Current reputation of happiness