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Studies

Kammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1

Publication

Author(s):
Kammann, R.; Flett, R.
Title:
Sourcebook for Measuring Well-Being with Affectometer 2.
Source:
'Why not?'Foundation, 1983, Dunedin, New Zealand

Investigation

Public:
18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 112
Non Response:
52%
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Administered at home

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 40 questions:

Over this time period (the last few weeks) I have had the feeling described by:
A  My life is on the right track
B  I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
C  I feel I can do whatever I want to
D  I think clearly and creatively
E  I feel like a failure
F  Nothing seems very much fun any more
G  I like myself
H  I can't be bothered doing anything
I    I feel close to people around me
J   I feel as though the best years of my life are over
K  My future looks good
L   I have lost interest in other people and don't care about them
M  I have energy to spare
N  I smile and laugh a lot
O  I wish I could change some parts of my life
P  My thoughts go around in useless circles
Q  I can handle any problems that come up
R  My life seems stuck in a rut
S  I feel loved and trusted
T  I feel there must be something wrong with me

"Over this period (the last few weeks), "how often you felt..."
U    Satisfied     
V     Lonely
W    Free-and-easy
X     Clear-headed
Y     Helpless
Z      Impatient
AA   Useful
AB   Depressed
AC   Loving
AD   Hopeless
AE   Optimistic
AF    Withdrawn
AG   Enthusiastic
AH   Good-natured
AI     Discontented
AJ    Confused
AK   Confident
AL    Tense
AM   Understood
AN    Insignificant

Answer options;
0  not at all
1  occasionally
2  some of the time
3  often
4  all the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect balance score (ABS):  PAS minus  NAS
Possible range: -4  to  +4
Classification:
A-BK-cm-mq-v-5-a
Author's label:
Affectometer 2
Remarks:
theoretical range -4.00 to + 4.00 M=1.43 Ms'=6.8 SD=1.08 Median 1.6
skewness -1.06  kurtosis .99                                  "
Error estimates:
retest after 2 weeks r=+.83 (N=91) _=.95 at retest after some weeks scores tend to be higher (means sizably higher, SD's slightly)
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range -4 - 4 On range 0-10
Mean:
1.43 6.80
SD:
1.08
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

"Taking all things together, how would you say you have been this period? Check the phrase that best describes how you have felt."
7  very happy
6  happy
5  somewhat happy
4  mixed (about equally happy and unhappy)
3  somewhat unhappy
2  unhappy
1  very unhappy
Classification:
M-FH-c-sq-v-7-a
Author's label:
7-step happiness/criterion item
Full text:
Selfreport on 96 questions:

SENTENCES
Each of the sentences below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past week;
A   Nothing goes right with me
B    I feel close to people around me
C    I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D    I feel my life is on the right track
E    I feel loved and trusted
F    My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G    I don't like myself
H    I feel very tense
I     I feel life isn't worth living
J     I am content with myself
K    My past life is filled with failure
L     Everything I do seems worthwhile
M    I can't be bothered doing anything
N    I feel I can do whatever I want to
O    I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
       them
P     Everything is going right for me
Q     I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
        people
R     I'm easy going
S     I seem to bee left alone when I don't want to be
T     I wish I could change some parts of my life
U     I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V     The future looks good
W    I become very lonely
X     I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y     I feel out of place
Z     I think clearly and creatively
AA   I feel alone
AB   I feel free and easy
AC   I smile and laugh a lot
AD   I feel things are going my way
AE   The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF    I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG   I feel like hiding away
AH   I feel confident about decisions I make
AI     I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ    I feel other people like me
AK   I feel like a failure
AL   I feel I'm a complete person
AM  I'm not sure I'm done the wright thing
AN   My future looks good
AO   I'm making the most out of my life
AP   Everything is going right for me
AQ   I feel unimportant
AR   I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS   I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT   I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU   I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV   The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile  

ADJECTIVES
Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past week;
A     Confident
B     Hopeless
C     Pleasant
D     Insignificant
E     Discontented
F     Healthy
G     Dejected
H     Annoyed
I      Down
J      Glad
K     Glowing
L      Relaxed
M     Comfortable
N     Moody
O     Understood
P      Blue
Q     Miserable
R     Joyful
S     Tense
T     Insecure
U     Shaky
V     Satisfied
W    Safe
X      Successful
Y      Free
Z      Sad
AA   Good-natured
AB   Impatient
AC   Rejected
AD   Lively
AE   Frustrated
AF   Fearful
AG   Lonely
AH   Warm
AI     Contented
AJ    Good
AK    Secure
AL    Disappointed
AM   Understanding
AN    Depressed
AO    Low
AP    Calm
AQ    Unhappy
AR    Upset
AS     Empty
AT     Enthusiastic
AU     Happy
AV     Vibrant

Answer options:
0  not at all
1  occasionally
2  some of the time
3  often
4  all of the time

Summation:
- Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus  NAS
Possible range - 4  to  +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version last week
Classification:
A-BK-cw-mq-v-5-a
Author's label:
Affectometer 1
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days?   Would you say that you are....?
3  very happy
2  pretty happy
1  not too happy
Classification:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Full text:
Selfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  (yes/no)
A   Particularly excited or interested in something?
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something  
     you had done?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
F   Bored?
G   On top of the world?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
I    That things were going your way?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no  = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Classification:
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Which (of the faces) best described how you feel about your life as a whole?
7  completely happy
6
5
4  neither happy nor unhappy
3
2
1  completely unhappy
Classification:
M-AO-u-sq-f-7-a

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Felt that life is on the right track Successful (vs failure) Felt lonely Feeling lonely (vs not) Felt free Feeling free (vs restrained) Felt clear and creative Feeling clear (vs dull, confused)
Self-perceived intelligence
Self-perceived creativeness
Felt failure Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate) Felt down Feeling down (vs not) Felt positive about self Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate) Felt not-involved Feeling involved (vs detached) Felt close to people Feeling close (vs remote) Felt best years are over Expected level of happiness (period unspecified)
Feeling hopeless (vs not)
Felt no interest in other people Feeling sociable (vs withdrawn) Felt energetic Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired) Cheerfull Laughing often Want life-change Wish to change life Felt thinking in circles Feeling clear (vs dull, confused) Felt capable Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate) Felt life is stuck Developing (vs stagnating) Felt loved Feeling love (vs not)
Love-feelings
Felt selfdoubt Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate) Felt future looks good Feeling hopeless (vs not)
Current hope
Felt satisfied Feeling satisfied (vs dissatisfied)
Hedonic level and mixed indicators of happiness
Felt free and easy Feeling free (vs restrained) Felt clear-headed Feeling clear (vs dull, confused)
Self-perceived intelligence
Felt helpless Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate) Felt impatient Feeling tranquil (vs restless) Felt usefull Meaningful (vs useless)
Perceived usefullness of one's life
Felt depressed Feeling down (vs not) Felt loving Feeling love (vs not)
Feels in love
Felt hopeless Feeling hopeless (vs not) Felt optimistic Feeling hopeless (vs not) Felt withdrawn Feeling sociable (vs withdrawn) Felt enthusiastic Feeling involved (vs detached) Felt good natured Feeling friendly (vs hostile) Felt discontented Feeling satisfied (vs dissatisfied)
Hedonic level and mixed indicators of happiness
Felt confused Feeling clear (vs dull, confused) Felt confident Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate) Felt tense Feeling tranquil (vs restless) Felt insignificant Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate) Felt understood Feeling understood (vs not)
Opportunities for self-disclosure
Self-disclosing
Index of affect Summed life aspect evaluations (semantic differential scales)
O-sum by A-AB
Circles A-AB by C-BW Well-being Scores on symptom inventories
Neurotic (f48)
Affect Balance A-AB by A-AB 7-step happiness A-AB by M-AO Net time happy A-AB by M-AO Sum of satisfactions Satisfaction with multiple domains of life Life-as-a-whole O-SL by A-AB 3-step happiness O-HL by A-AB Elation-Depression Mood during the day of interview Faces A-AB by M-AO Stress Summed life-events: equal weight