Clum & Clum (1973): study US 1971
- Clum, G.A.; Clum, J.
- Choice of Defense Mechanisms and Their Relationship to Mood Level
- Psychological Reports, 1973, Vol. 32, 507 - 510
- Undergrates, San Diego State College, USA, 197?
- N = 55
- Non Response
- Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Self report on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)
"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
- Author's label: