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Correlational findings

Study Clum & Clum (1973): study US 1971

Public:
Undergrates, San Diego State College, USA, 197?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 55
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper

Correlate

Authors's Label
Defense mechanisms
Our Classification
Remarks
Correlations were presented for males only. Among females no relationships were found, exept in the case of turning against others.
Operationalization
Inventory containing 10 stories, dealing with the following conflict areas: authority, independence, masculinity (male form), feminity (female form), competition and situational. After reading each story each S was asked to respond to four questions corresponding to four types of behavior evoked by the situation described in the story:
-purpose actual behavior
-impulsive behavior (in fantasy)
-thoughts
-feelings
Five responses are provided for each question, each response representing one of five defense mechanisms.
Each S marked a plus for the response most representative for his reaction and a minus for the one least representative. (Defense Mechanism Inventory; see Gleser & Ihilevich, 1969).

1. TURNING AGAINST OTHERS: Defenses    that deal with conflict through
   attacking a real or presumed exter-
   nal frustration object (Turning
   against Object cluster).

2. PROJECTION: Defenses which justify
   the expression of agression towards
   an external object through first
   attributing negative intent or
   characteristics to it (Projection
   cluster).

3. INTELLECTUALIZATION: Defenses that
   deal with conflict through invoking
   a general priciple that 'splits off'
   affect from content and represses
   the former; e.g. intellectualiza-    tion, isolation, rationallization
   (Principalization cluster).

4. TURNING AGAINST SELF: Defenses that
   deal with conflict through directing
   aggressive behavior towards S
   himself; e.g. masochism and auto-
   sadism (Turning against Self
   cluster)

5. REVERSAL: Defenses that deal with
   conflict by responding in a positive
   or neutral fashion to a frustrating
   object which might be expected to
   evoke negative reaction, e.g.
   negation, denial, reaction forma-
   tion, and repression (Reversal
   cluster).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.33 ns Action behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.40 ns Fantasy behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.44 p < .05 Thought behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.29 ns Affect. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.57 p < .01 SUMSCORE.
Among females also a tendency for the defence turning against others to be negatively related to hedonic level.
                              
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.01 ns Action behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.05 ns Fantasy behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.40 ns Thought behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.10 ns Affect. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.21 ns SUMSCORE.
       
         
         
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.33 ns Action behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.20 ns Fantasy behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.47 p < .05 Thought behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.04 ns Affect. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.43 p < .05 SUMSCORE.
  

     
            
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.21 ns Action behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.21 ns Fantasy behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.13 ns Thought behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.24 ns Affect. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.28 ns SUMSCORE.
    
       
            
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.10 ns Action behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.37 ns Fantasy behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.59 p < .01 Thought behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.43 p < .05 Affect. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.55 p < .01 SUMSCORE.