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Correlational findings

Study Clum & Clum (1973): study US 1971

Public:
Undergrates, San Diego State College, USA, 197?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 55
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper

Correlate

Authors's label
Defense mechanisms
Our Classification
Operationalization
Inventory containing 10 stories, dealing with the following conflict areas: authority, independence, masculinity (male form), feminity (female form), competition and situational. After reading each story each S was asked to respond to four questions corresponding to four types of behavior evoked by the situation described in the story:
-purpose actual behavior
-impulsive behavior (in fantasy)
-thoughts
-feelings
Five responses are provided for each question, each response representing one of five defense mechanisms.
Each S marked a plus for the response most representative for his reaction and a minus for the one least representative. (Defense Mechanism Inventory; see Gleser & Ihilevich, 1969).

1. TURNING AGAINST OTHERS: Defenses    that deal with conflict through
   attacking a real or presumed exter-
   nal frustration object (Turning
   against Object cluster).

2. PROJECTION: Defenses which justify
   the expression of agression towards
   an external object through first
   attributing negative intent or
   characteristics to it (Projection
   cluster).

3. INTELLECTUALIZATION: Defenses that
   deal with conflict through invoking
   a general priciple that 'splits off'
   affect from content and represses
   the former; e.g. intellectualiza-    tion, isolation, rationallization
   (Principalization cluster).

4. TURNING AGAINST SELF: Defenses that
   deal with conflict through directing
   aggressive behavior towards S
   himself; e.g. masochism and auto-
   sadism (Turning against Self
   cluster)

5. REVERSAL: Defenses that deal with
   conflict by responding in a positive
   or neutral fashion to a frustrating
   object which might be expected to
   evoke negative reaction, e.g.
   negation, denial, reaction forma-
   tion, and repression (Reversal
   cluster).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.33 ns Action behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.40 ns Fantasy behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.44 p < .05 Thought behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.29 ns Affect. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.57 p < .01 SUMSCORE.
Among females also a tendency for the defence turning against others to be negatively related to hedonic level.
                              
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.01 ns Action behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.05 ns Fantasy behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.40 ns Thought behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.10 ns Affect. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.21 ns SUMSCORE.
       
         
         
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.33 ns Action behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.20 ns Fantasy behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.47 p < .05 Thought behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.04 ns Affect. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.43 p < .05 SUMSCORE.
  

     
            
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.21 ns Action behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.21 ns Fantasy behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.13 ns Thought behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.24 ns Affect. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.28 ns SUMSCORE.
    
       
            
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.10 ns Action behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.37 ns Fantasy behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.59 p < .01 Thought behavior. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.43 p < .05 Affect. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.55 p < .01 SUMSCORE.