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Studies

Brulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000

Publication

Author(s):
Brulé, G; Veenhoven, R.
Title:
Why are Latin Europeans Less Happy? The Impact of Hierarchy.
Source:
Camevacci, M.;Ed.: 2012, "Polyphonic Antroplogy: Theoretical and Emperical"

Investigation

Public:
Adults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
Survey name:
Pooled surveys
Sample:
Varied Probability
Respondents:
N = 55000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Different methods across surveys. Most were conducted face-to-face.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question

Various questions on satisfaction with life as-a-whole, rated on 10 or 11 step numeral scales. 10 step variants stretched to range 0-10
Classification:
O-SLW---sq-nt-11-a
Author's label:
Overall happiness
Remarks:
North Europe  M=7,9   Latin Europe   M=6,9
Page in publication:
2
Full text:
Selfreport on 14 questions

Did you experience the following feelings during A LOT OF THE DAY yesterday? How about..
A  enjoyment?
B  physical pain
C  worry
D  sadness
E  stress
F  anger
G  depression
H  love

Now please think about YESTERDAY, from the morning until the end of the day. Think of where you were, what you were doing and how you felt.
I    Did you feel well rested yesterday?
J   Did you smile or laugh a lot yesterday?
K  Did you learn or do something interesting yesterday?
L  Would you like to have more days just like yesterday?
M  Were you proud of something you did yesterday?
N   Were you treated with respect all day yesterday?

Rated:
1  yes
0 no
-  no answer, don't know

Computation:
- Average % positive affect = (A+H+I+J+K+L+M+N)/8
- Average % negative affect = (B+C+D+E+F+G)/6
- Affect Balance = Average % positive affect - Average % negative affect


These questions do not measure hedonic level of affect of individual persons adequately, since yesterday's mood does not always correspond with typical average mood. Yet these questions can be used for measuring hedonic level in agregates, such as nations, since individual variations balance out in big samples.
Classification:
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-b
Author's label:
Hedonic level of affect
Page in publication:
2
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
Classification:
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c
Author's label:
Contentment
Remarks:
North Europe  M=4,0   Latin Europe   M=3,5
Page in publication:
2

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Perception of hierarchy Perceived freedom in nation Perceived fate control (work) Perceived freedom in nation
Satisfaction with work in nation
Approval of hierarchy Inequality in nation
Birth control in the nation
Perceived freedom in nation
Hofstede's Power Distance Index Inequality in nation Perceived fate control (life) Perceived freedom in nation
Control belief: internal/external in nation
Economic prosperity Gnp per capita (raw)