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Studies

Bradburn (1969): study US 1963

Publication

Author(s):
Bradburn, N.M.
Title:
The Structure of Psychological Well-Being.
Source:
Aldine Publishing, 1969, Chicago, USA

Investigation

Public:
21-60 aged, urban areas, USA, 1963 - 64
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 2787
Non Response:
± 20%, Attrition ± 30%
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Repeated interviews at home using highly structured questionnaires

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  (yes/no)
A   Particularly excited or interested in something?
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something  
     you had done?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
F   Bored?
G   On top of the world?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
I    That things were going your way?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no  = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Classification:
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Author's label:
Psychological well-being
Remarks:
Actual range: 2% score -4 or -5, 5% -3, 10% -2, 14% -1, 21% 0, 20% +1,
15% +2, 10% +3, 3% +4 or +5
Error estimates:
Reliability: Equivalence: - positive items : G ranging from +.23 to +.72 - negative items : G ranging from +.41 to +.71 - positive x negative items : G ranging from -.28 to +.25 - positive affect score x negative affect score : T1: G=+.08, T3: G=+.02 Washington suburban county : T1: G=+.13, T3: G=+.07 Working class neighbourhood, Chicago : T1: G=+.04, T3: G=-.06 All-white suburb, Detroit : T1: G=+.08, T3: G=+.14 Negro inner city, Detroit : T1: G=+.04, T3: G=-.20 Ten metropolitan areas : T1: G=+.11, T3: G=+.02 Retest reliability (retest after 3 days, N=174): - Affect Balance Scale : G=+.76 - Index of Positive Affects : G=+.83 - Index of Negative Affects : G=+.81 - positive items separately : G ranging from +.86 to +.96 - negative items separately : G ranging from +.90 to +.97 Repeat reliability: Non-significant differences in average Ridit values in the four interviews for affect balance, positive affect and negative affect. White suburb Detroit only. Validity:
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range -5 - 5 On range 0-10
Mean:
0.35 5.35
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days?   Would you say that you are....?
3  very happy
2  pretty happy
1  not too happy
Classification:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Author's label:
Psychological well-being
Error estimates:
Reliability: Repeat reliability: All samples: T1 - T3: +.74 for males, G= +.71 for females. White suburb, Detroit only: T1 - T2: G=+.65 for males, G=+.79 for females T2 - T3: G=+.68 for males, G=+.79 for females T3 - T4: G=+.80 for males, G=+.84 for females Validity:
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 8%,   2: 59%,   3: 33%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 3 On range 0-10
Mean:
2.25 6.25
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

In getting the things you want out of life, how would you say that you are  right now.....?
3  very well
2  pretty well
1  not too well
Classification:
C-W-c-sq-v-3-a
Author's label:
Psychological well-being
Remarks:
Assessed at T3: 27% very well, 65% pretty well,  8% not too well       M=2.19   Ms'=6.0
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 8%,   2: 65%,   3: 27%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 3 On range 0-10
Mean:
2.19 6.00

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Frequency of contacts with relatives Contacts with relatives Getting what one wants from life _B A-AB by C-RW Recent illness Current functional health Physical symptoms Current physical complaints Psychological anxiety Current mental complaints Ever expected a nervous breakdown Earlier mental health Wish to change life Wish to change life Panel dropout Panel-dropout Distance traveled from home during the past few weeks Traveling New activities engaged in Change in specific leisure activities New ego-oriented activities engaged in Change in specific leisure activities Gone to new places Change in specific leisure activities Novelty Change in specific leisure activities Change in marital happiness Change in satisfaction with marriage Amount of worries Amount of worrying Contacts with friends other than relatives Current contacts with friends Contacts with relatives Contacts with relatives Chatting with friends on telephone Telephone calls with friends Organisational activity Attendance to meetings Having met new people Change in personal contacts Having made new friends Change in personal contacts New other-oriented activities engaged in Change in personal contacts
Change in specific leisure activities
Job advancement Advancement in current job Feeling of inadequate job performance Self-perceived work-performance White race Ethnic status in the USA Psychological well-being O-HL by A-AB Getting what one wants from life_A O-HL by C-RW Married vs. never married Married vs never married Married vs. widowed Married vs widowed Married vs. divorced Married vs divorced Married vs. separated Married vs separated Never married vs. widowed Vs widowed Never married vs. divorced Vs divorced Never married vs. separated Vs separated Widowed vs. divorced Vs divorced Widowed vs. separated Vs separated Divorced Vs separated Marital tension Tensions in relationship Marriage companionship Shared activities Marriage sociability Shared activities Satisfaction with work_B Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole Occupational prestige Social prestige of occupation White collar job Manual or non-manual Marriage hap[piness Satisfaction with marriage Satisfaction with work_A Change in satisfaction with work Social trauma: Kennedy's assassination Trend happiness in urban/rural dwellers
Civil war in nation
Age Current age (in years) Education Level of school-education Male sex Sex (male vs female) Number of children Children in the household Change in worries (Increase) Change in worries Change in anxiety (Increase) Change in anxiety Worry about debt Attitudes to one's possessions Employment status of spouce Employment of spouse Change in employment Falling unemployed
Getting (re)employed
Earlier affect Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago) Earlier happiness Recent happiness (< 1 year ago) Family income Household income Having debts Debts Increase in subjective debts level Change in possessions Increase of income Change in income level Change in pay Change in income level Long-term illness Chronic illness
Current functional health
Change in marriage happiness Change in satisfaction with marriage