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Studies

Bortner & Hultsch (1970): study US 1959

Publication

Author(s):
Bortner, R.W.; Hultsch, D.F.
Title:
A Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction in Adulthood.
Source:
Journal of Gerontology, 1970, Vol. 25, 41 - 47

Investigation

Public:
21+ aged, general public, USA, 1959
Sample:
Probability area sample
Respondents:
N = 1301
Non Response:
9%
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Structured interview

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question :

"Some people seem to be quite happy and satisfied with their lives, while others seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied. Now look at this ladder (again). Suppose that a person who is entirely satisfied with his life would be at the top of the ladder and a person who is extremely dissatisfied with his life would be at the bottom of the ladder. Where would you put yourself on the ladder at the present stage of your life in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your personal life?"
[ 10 ]  entirely satisfied
[   9 ]
[   8 ]
[   7 ]
[   6 ]
[   5 ]
[   4 ]
[   3 ]
[   2 ]
[   1 ]
[   0 ]  entirely dissatisfied

Name Cantril ladder rating (modified version)
Classification:
O-SLP-c-sq-l-11-a
Author's label:
Life satisfaction
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%,   8: 0%,   9: 0%,   10: 0%,   11: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 10 On range 0-10
Mean:
7.64 7.64
SD:
2.05 2.05
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the  bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?   
[  10  ]  best possible life
[    9  ]
[    8  ]
[    7  ]
[    6  ]
[    5  ]
[    4  ]
[    3  ]
[    2  ]
[    1  ]
[    0  ]  worst possible life
                          
                                                                                
Preceded by 1)  open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and  where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
Classification:
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-a
Author's label:
Self preset
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%,   8: 0%,   9: 0%,   10: 0%,   11: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 10 On range 0-10
Mean:
6.59 6.59
SD:
2.26 2.26
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

How would you rate yourself as to how successful or unsuccessful you have been in terms of achieving your own goals and aims in life? Think of the top of the ladder as being completely successful, the bottom being entirely unsuccessful
[ 10 ]    completely successful
[   9 ]
[   8 ]
[   7 ]
[   6 ]
[   5 ]
[   4 ]
[   3 ]
[   2 ]
[   1 ]     
[   0 ]   entirely unsuccessful
Classification:
C-RG-h-sq-l-11-a
Author's label:
Success in goals
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%,   8: 0%,   9: 0%,   10: 0%,   11: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 10 On range 0-10
Mean:
6.74 6.74
SD:
2.18 2.18

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Age Current age (in years) Educational level Level of school-education White race Ethnic status in the USA Opportunities to do what you would like to do Amount of restrictions perceived Male sex Sex (male vs female) Success in achieving goals_B C-BW by C-RW Life satisfaction 5 years ago In recent past Expected life satisfaction 5 years from now In the near future (up to 5 years)
Current hope
Being more satisfiedwith life than 5 yrsago (retrotension) Recent change Expected improv. in life satisf. during next 5 yr protension In the near future (up to 5 years) Economic level 'Objective' socio-economic status Enjoyment of previous day Yesterday's mood Marital status Married state (compared to non-married states) Positive evaluation of present national situation Evaluation of current situation of nation Positive evaluation of national situa- tion 5 years ago Perceived earlier situation of nation Positive expectat. of national situa- tion 5 yrs. from now Hopes for the nation Perceived improve- ment in nat. situat.during past 5 years Expected improvement\deterioration of one's nation Expected improvementin nat. situation during next 5 years Hopes for the nation Efficacy Inner locus of control Extent of perceived troubels and obstac-les in life Easy (vs hard) Worries and fears Amount of worrying Importance of reli- gion in one's life Concern about religion Satisfaction with the way things are going in the USA Satisfaction with life in nation in general Self-respect Self respect Self-confidence Self confidence Occupational level Occupational level Life satisfaction O-SL by C-BW Success in achieving goals_A O-SL by C-RG