print

Studies

Andrews & Withey (1976): study US 1972 /2

Publication

Author(s):
Andrews, F.M.; Withey, S.B.
Title:
Social Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
Source:
Plenum Press, 1976, New York, USA

Investigation

Public:
18+ aged, general public, USA, Nov 1972
Survey name:
Unnamed study
Sample:
Probability area sample
Respondents:
N = 1072
Non Response:
38%
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
using highly structured questionnaires

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days?   Would you say that you are....?
3  very happy
2  pretty happy
1  not too happy
Classification:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Author's label:
Three-point happiness (G31)
Page in publication:
319
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 11%,   2: 67%,   3: 22%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 3 On range 0-10
Mean:
2.11 6.99
SD:
0.56 1.47
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

How do you feel how happy you are.....?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied)
3  mostly
2  unhappy
1  terrible
Classification:
O-HV-u-sq-v-7-b
Author's label:
Seven-point happiness (G32)
Page in publication:
319
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 1%,   2: 1%,   3: 3%,   4: 9%,   5: 33%,   6: 40%,   7: 13%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
Mean:
5.44
SD:
1.09
Full text:
Selfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  (yes/no)
A   Particularly excited or interested in something?
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something  
     you had done?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
F   Bored?
G   On top of the world?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
I    That things were going your way?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no  = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Classification:
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Author's label:
Affect balance (G37)
Remarks:
                            Affect balance
Negative                                                         Positive
-5     -4     -3     -2     -1     0      +1     +2     +3     +4      +5
<1%    1%     2%     5%     8%     13%    17%    17%    16%    14%     6%
Page in publication:
321
Error estimates:
equivalence: positive affect * negative affect: r=+.01 positive affect * affect balance : r=+.71 negative affect * affect balance : r=-.70
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range -5 - 5 On range 0-10
Mean:
1.52 6.50
SD:
2.15
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7  completely satisfied
6
5
4  neutral
3
2
1  completely dissatisfied
Classification:
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-a
Author's label:
Seven-point satisfaction (G29)
Page in publication:
318
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 1%,   2: 1%,   3: 5%,   4: 11%,   5: 24%,   6: 44%,   7: 14%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
Mean:
5.44 7.40
SD:
1.17 1.95
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

In general how satisfying do you find the way you are spending your life these days. Would you call it.....?
3  completely satisfying
2  pretty satisfying
1  not very satisfying
Classification:
O-SLL-c-sq-v-3-a
Author's label:
Three-point satisfaction (G30)
Page in publication:
318
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 12%,   2: 69%,   3: 19%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 3 On range 0-10
Mean:
2.07 6.91
SD:
0.55 1.66
Full text:
Selfreport on single question :

Where would you put your life as a whole on a feeling thermometer?
Rated on 'thermometer scale' (in grades)
0 degrees: very cold, negative
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100  very warm, positive
Classification:
M-FH-u-sq-t-101-a
Author's label:
Thermometer (G8)
Page in publication:
313
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 1%,   7: 3%,   8: 7%,   9: 27%,   10: 43%,   11: 19%,   12: 0%,   13: 0%,   14: 0%,   15: 0%,   16: 0%,   17: 0%,   18: 0%,   19: 0%,   20: 0%,   21: 0%,   22: 0%,   23: 0%,   24: 0%,   25: 0%,   26: 0%,   27: 0%,   28: 0%,   29: 0%,   30: 0%,   31: 0%,   32: 0%,   33: 0%,   34: 0%,   35: 0%,   36: 0%,   37: 0%,   38: 0%,   39: 0%,   40: 0%,   41: 0%,   42: 0%,   43: 0%,   44: 0%,   45: 0%,   46: 0%,   47: 0%,   48: 0%,   49: 0%,   50: 0%,   51: 0%,   52: 0%,   53: 0%,   54: 0%,   55: 0%,   56: 0%,   57: 0%,   58: 0%,   59: 0%,   60: 0%,   61: 0%,   62: 0%,   63: 0%,   64: 0%,   65: 0%,   66: 0%,   67: 0%,   68: 0%,   69: 0%,   70: 0%,   71: 0%,   72: 0%,   73: 0%,   74: 0%,   75: 0%,   76: 0%,   77: 0%,   78: 0%,   79: 0%,   80: 0%,   81: 0%,   82: 0%,   83: 0%,   84: 0%,   85: 0%,   86: 0%,   87: 0%,   88: 0%,   89: 0%,   90: 0%,   91: 0%,   92: 0%,   93: 0%,   94: 0%,   95: 0%,   96: 0%,   97: 0%,   98: 0%,   99: 0%,   100: 0%,   101: 0%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 100 On range 0-10
Mean:
79.17 7.92
SD:
15.26 1.53
Full text:
Selfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global life satisfaction'
Classification:
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-a
Author's label:
Life 3 (Life 1 + Life 2)
Remarks:
Combination of two ratings on 7-step scale results in 14 steps, with the following frequencies
7.0   6.5   6.0   5.5   5.0   4.5   4.0   3.5   3.0   2.5   2.0   1.5   1.0
%     %     %     %     %     %     %     %     %     %     %     %     %
5.5   7.4  23.4  17.8  26.4  8.4  6.3   1.7   1.1   0.7   0.8   0.3   0.2
Page in publication:
311
Error estimates:
Reliability: repeat-reliability (correlation between scores on same questions asked twice during the interview): r=+.71 Validity:
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
Mean:
5.30 7.17

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Satisfaction with standards and values of society Current anomy
Satisfaction with moral climate
Attitudes to value-climate
Satisfaction with opportunity to change things Satisfaction with opportunity to change things
In control (vs drifting)
Satisfaction with admiration or respect by others Attitudes to own reputation
Satisfaction with respect for rights in nation
Attitudes to own popularity
Satisfaction with amount of fun Pleasant (vs unpleasant) Satisfaction with chances to enjoy pleasant things Pleasant (vs unpleasant) Satisfaction with one's creativity Satisfaction with own abilities Satisfaction with chances of getting a good job Perceived chances for employment Satisfaction with amount of sleep Satisfaction with amount of sleep Satisfaction with spare time activities Satisfaction with leisure activities Satisfaction with amount of time doing things one likes Satisfaction with time for leisure Satisfaction with chances for relaxation Satisfaction with leisure Satisafction with house, apartment Satisfaction with housing Satisfaction with goods and services available in area Satisfaction with medical services in vinicity Satisfaction with nearby places of recreation and sports Satisfaction with local recreation Satisfaction with security from theft Satisfaction with safety in vinicity Satisfaction with national government Attitudes to national government Satisfaction with friends Satisfaction with friends Satisfaction with sex life Satisfaction with sex-life Satisfaction with reliability of others Satisfaction with moral climate Satisfaction with privacy Attitude to privacy Affect Balance O-HL by A-AB
O-further by A-AB
O-SL by A-AB
O-DT by A-AB
Happiness O-HL by O-DT
O-HL by O-HL
O-HL by A-AB
O-HL by O-SL
O-SL by O-DT
O-HL by O-further
Wish to change life Wish to change life Amount of worrying Amount of worrying Overall happiness O-HL by O-DT
O-DT by A-AB
O-SL by O-DT
O-HL by O-SL
O-DT by O-further
Feeling warm about life O-HL by O-further
O-further by A-AB
O-SL by O-further
O-DT by O-further
Single aspect evaluations (on criteria of good life)
Satisfaction with life as a whole_B O-HL by O-SL
O-HL by O-HL
O-SL by A-AB
Satisfaction with life as a whole_C O-SL by A-AB Satisfaction with life as a whole_D O-SL by O-SL Satisfaction with life as a whole_A O-SL by O-SL Satisfaction with life as a whole_E O-SL by O-further Satisfaction with life as a whole_H O-SL by O-further Delighted Terrible life O-DT by O-DT
Sequence of items
Satisfaction with life as a whole_F O-SL by O-DT Satisfaction with life as a whole_G O-SL by O-DT Satisfaction with housework Satisfaction with home-making Satisfaction with family agreement on spending Satisfaction with family Satisfaction with oneself Satisfaction with own abilities Satisfaction with health, physical condition Satisfaction with health Satisfaction with own family life Satisfaction with family Satisfaction with activities with family Satisfaction with family Satisfaction with respect for rights by others Satisfaction with respect for rights in nation Satisfaction with material standard of living Satisfaction with standard of living Satisfaction with house, apartment Satisfaction with housing Satisfaction with job Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole Satisfaction with cost of living Satisfaction with costs of living in nation Satisfaction with neighborhood Satisfaction with local environment Satisfaction with local government Attitudes to local government Satisfaction with media Satisfaction with media in nation Explained variance in feelings about life as a whole Mixed multiple life-appraisals Male sex Sex (male vs female) Age Current age (in years) Social economic status 'Objective' socio-economic status
Over/under-achievement
Status consistency
Family life cycle Family career (family life-cycle)
Stage of life
Married state (compared to non-married states)
Current parental status
White race Ethnic status in the USA Satisfaction with the way young peoplethink and act Satisfaction with compatriots in nation Satisfaction with life as a whole_I O-HL by O-SL