Correlational finding on Happiness and 'Objective' socio-economic status
Subject code: S09ab01

StudyWright (1978): study US 1971
TitleAre Working Women Really More Satisfied? Evidence from Several National Surveys.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1978, Vol. 40, 301 -373
PublicWhite married women, USA, 1971-76
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2541

Correlate
Author's labelSocial class
Page in Source 304-05
Our classification'Objective' socio-economic status, code S09ab01
Operationalization
Occupational level of husband:
0 Working class
1 Middle class
Remarks
Working wives with preschool children were omitted from 
the sample. (Not housewives with pre-school children).
               
              

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aDMt=+.25
1971 only:
Middle class Mt'  = 8.20
Working class Mt' = 7.95
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+
     Housewives      Working wives
1971 G'=+.18 (01)    G'=+.12 (05)
1972 G'=+.27 (01)    G'=+.24 (01)
1973 G'=+.26 (01)    G'=+.25 (01)
1974 G'=+.19 (01)    G'=+.05 (ns)
1975 G'=+.13 (01)    G'=+.06 (ns)
1976 G'=+.18 (01)    G'=-.09 (ns)



Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl