Correlational finding on Happiness and Full-time home maker
Subject code: E02ab01

StudyWright (1978): study US 1971
TitleAre Working Women Really More Satisfied? Evidence from Several National Surveys.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1978, Vol. 40, 301 -373
PublicWhite married women, USA, 1971-76
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2541

Correlate
Author's labelIn laborforce
Page in Source 305
Our classificationFull-time home maker, code E02ab01
Operationalization
1 Housewives 
0 Working wives
Remarks
Working wives with preschool children were omitted from 
the sample. (Not housewives with pre-school children).
               
              

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=
     Middle class    Working class
1971 G'=+.13 (01)    G'=+.16 (01)
1972 G'=-.09 (05)    G'=-.05 (ns)
1973 G'=-.08 (ns)    G'=-.05 (ns)
1974 G'=-.04 (ns)    G'=+.11 (ns)
1975 G'=-.01 (ns)    G'=+.05 (ns)
1976 G'=-.04 (ns)    G'=+.22 (01)
No consistent, substantial or significant
differences.                           
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aDMt=
1971 only:
Middle class: Housewives Mt'=8.2  Working Mt'=7.9
Working cl. : Housewives Mt'=8.1  Working Mt'=8.0


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl