Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the USA
Subject code: E04ab03t

StudyHerzog et al. (1982): study US 1971
TitleSubjective Well-Being among Different Age Groups.
SourceResearch Report I.S.R., University of Michigan, 1982, Ann Arbor, USA
Public25-97 aged, general public, USA, 1971-1978
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1500

Correlate
Author's labelWhite race
Page in Source 51
Our classificationEthnic status in the USA, code E04ab03t
Operationalization
0. Black
1. White
Remarks
DATASETS:
1: 1972,      N=1955, SI study, see ANDRE 1976
2: 1972-1978, N=9151, Pooled General Social Surv. 3: 
1973-1975, N=3222, Pooled Omnibus Surveys
4: 1976,      N= 707, Omnibus Survey
5: 1974-1975, N=1077, S.I. study, Detroit Area
6: 1971,      N=1822, QOL Survey, See CAMPB 1975
7: 1978,      N=3141, QOL Survey, See CAMPB 1981
                 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.09 p < .05
DATASET 1:  identical across age (25-44/45-64/
65-97),  controlled for gender, family 
income,education, employment status and marital 
status.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.04 p < .05
DATASET 2:  identical across age (25-44/45-64/
65-97).  controlled for gender, family income, 
education, employment status, marital status and 
health.
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=+.02 ns
DATASET 1:  identical across age.  controlled 
for gender, family income, education, employment 
status and marital status.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.08 ns
DATASET 5: Whites happier among 25-44 aged 
(p<.05). No differences among 45-64/65-97 aged.
 controlled for gender, family income, education, 
marital status and employment status.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.00 ns
DATASET 6: identical across age. controlled for
gender, family income, education, employment 
status, marital status and health. 
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aBeta=-.02 ns
DATASET 3:  identical across age.  controlledfor 
gender, family income, education, employment 
status and marital status.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.05 ns
DATASET 5:  identical across age (25-44/45-64/
65-97).  controlled for gender, family income, 
education, employmeny status and marital status.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.01 ns
DATASET 6: Whites happier among 25-44 aged 
(p<.05). No differences among 45-64/65-97 aged. 
 controlled for gender, family income, education, 
employment status, marital status and health.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.01 ns
DATASET 7: Whites happier among 25-44 aged 
(p<.05). No differences occured among 45-64/65-97 
aged.  controlled for gender, family income, 
education, employment status, marital status and 
health.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=-.02 ns
DATASET 7:  identical across age.   controlled 
for gender, family income, education, employment 
status, marital status and health.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl