Correlational finding on Happiness and Gratitude training
Subject code: H16ad02ga

StudyRash et al. (2011): study CA 2011
TitleGratitude and Well-Being: Who Benefits the Most from a Gratitude Intervention?
SourceApplied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 2011, Vol. 3, 350 - 369
PublicParticipants in a 4-week psychological training, Canada, 2011
SampleNon-probability self-selected
Respondents N =65

Author's labelGratitude inducing exercises vs recalling events
Page in Source 358-359
Our classificationGratitude training, code H16ad02ga
Participants were randomly assigned to one of two 
groups with different intervention conditions:

A: Gratitude enhancing group. 
Pparticipants were asked to think about items, people 
or events for which they are particular grateful, and 
to try to experience and maintain the sincere 
heart-felt feelings of gratitude associated with that 

B: Memorizing events.
Participants were asked to recall memorable events and 
to try to experience and maintain feelings associated 
with the events.

Intervention period: 4-weeks; reflection exercises 
twice a week.

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-BW-m-mqr-v-5-aDMe=+.43 ns
Daily Affect Balance after intervention (T2), 
controled for general Affect Balance before 
intervention (T1)
A: Gratitude intervention  Ma = + 1,66
B: Memorizing intervention Ma = + 1,23
   - difference                 + 0,43

T1 General Affect Balance not reported

T2 Affect Balance computed by WDH team from 
separate Negative and Positive affect scores.
A-BW-m-mqr-v-5-aAoC= ns

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BW-m-mqr-v-5-aSelfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you feel this way during the past few weeks:
A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exiled
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS ('moment' version)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlates: at least one nominal and at least one metric, Happiness: metric.

Just as in an ANOVA, in an ANCOVA the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is partitioned into several parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least two of those sources are the variability of the correlates, in case there is one for each correlate, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

In an Analysis of Covariance, the treatment means for all levels of the nominal correlate are 'adjusted' for differences in the mean values of the metric correlate.
Type: descriptive statistic
Measurement level: happiness metric
correlate; dichotomous or nominal
Seldom used in happiness research.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.