Happiness Measures


Affect: Balance (Watson et al PANAS) (A-BW)
Time frame:
momentary (now) (m)
multiple questions (mq)
Scale Type:
verbal scale (v)
Scale Range:


Selfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you feel this way right now:
A  nervous
B  distressed
C  afraid
D  jittery
E  irritable
F  upset
G  scared
H  exiled
I   ashamed
J   guilty
K  hostile
L  active
M  determined
N  inspired
O  enthusiastic
P  alert
Q  attentive
R  proud
S  strong
T  interested

Answer options:  
1  very slightly or not at all
2  a little
3  moderately
4  quite a bit
5  extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score   (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS ('moment' version)

List of Studies Using this Measure

Study Population N Statistics Lyubomirsky et al. (2006): study US 2006 Student participants in a life review exercise and controls, California, USA, 2006 N = 96
MacLeod et al. (2008): study GB London 2008 Participants in a goal training and controls, London, United Kingdom, 2008 N = 64
= 11.700
Rash et al. (2011): study CA 2011 Participants in a 4-week psychological training, Canada, 2011 N = 65
Gavian (2011): study US 2010 Student participants in a psychological training, USA, 2010 N = 247
= 1.240