Correlational finding on Happiness and Gratitude training
Subject code: H16ad02ga

StudyFroh et al. (2009a): study US 2006
TitleWho Benefits the Most from a Gratitude Intervention in Children and Adolescents? Examining Positive Affect as a Moderator.
SourceThe Journal of Positive Psychology, 2009, Vol. 4, 408 - 422
URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760902992464
DOIDOI:10.1080/17439760902992464
Public8-19 aged participants in a gratitude intervention and controls, USA, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =89

Correlate
Author's labelGratitude intervention
Page in Source 414
Our classificationGratitude training, code H16ad02ga
Operationalization
Students were randomly assigned to

1 GRATITUDE INTERVENTION. Students were directed to 
express their gratitude to a person that has been 
especially kind to them. They had to write a gratitude 
letter and deliver the letter personally in a face tot 
face meeting.

O: CONTROL. Students had to write down some of the 
things they did yesterday and what they felt like doing 
these things.
Observed distribution1: 50 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-5-eDM=+/- ns
CHANGE happiness    T1-T2    T1-T3   T1-T4 
- Gratitude group   + 1.8      0.0   - 0.8 (ns)
- Control group     + 2.7    - 0.9   - 0.6 (ns)
Difference          - 0.9    + 0.9   - 0.2 (ns)

Happiness assessed at:
T1: pre-test
T2: post-tst
T3: 3 week follow up
T4: 2 month follow-up

Affect Balance computed by WDH team substracting 
average negative affect from average positive 
affect


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-AB-cm-mq-v-5-eSelfreport on 30 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past few weeks?
A Interested
B Sad
C Frightened
D Alert
E Excited
F Ashamed
G Upset
H Happy
I Strong
J Nervous
K Guilty
L Energetic
M Scared
N Calm
O Miserable
P Jittery
Q Cheerful
R Active
S Proud
T Afraid
U Joyful
V Lonely
W Mad
X Fearless
Y Disgusted
Z Delighted
AA Blue
AB Daring
AC Gloomy
AD Lively

Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): B, C, F, G, J, K, M, O, P, T, V, W, Y, AA, AC
Positive affect score (PAS):A, D, E, H, I, L, N, Q, R, S, U, X, Z, AB, AD
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS. Adapted for children by Laurent et al. (Version PANAS-C)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl