Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier educational level
Subject code: E01aa01

StudyKeith (1985a): study US 1969
TitleWork, Retirement and Well-Being among Unmarried Men and Women.
SourceGerontologist, 1985, Vol. 25, 410 - 416
Public58-63 aged unmarried, followed 10 years, USA, 1969-1979
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1398

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier education
Page in Source 414
Our classificationEarlier educational level, code E01aa01
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
1 elementary education or less
2
3
4
5
6 having done gruaduate work
Assessed at T1. (10 years ago)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=
T1 education by T2 LEVEL of happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.10 ns
- widowed
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.07 ns
- divorced/separated
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.18 ns
- never married
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=
T1 education by T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.05 ns
- widowed
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=-.02 ns
- divorced/separated
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.10 ns
- never married

Beta's with T2 happiness controled for:
- sexe
- age
- T1 occupation
- T1 happiness: to measure CHANGE in happiness


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl