Correlational finding on Happiness and Specific beliefs
Subject code: R10ab04

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999
TitleSocial Capitel, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1205

Correlate
Author's labelBelief in religious ideas
Page in Source 1039
Our classificationSpecific beliefs, code R10ab04
Operationalization
Which, if any, of the following do you believe in?
a.  God
b.  Life after death
c.  Hell
d.  Heaven
e.  Sin
f.   Telepathy
Rated:
0 = no
1 = yes
Observed distributionM = 0.8, SD = 0.17
Remarks
Cronbach's alpha = 0.81

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC= ns
probability of being more/less happy when 
believing
- very satisfied          - 1% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied      - 1% (ns)
- medium satisfied        - 0% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   + 1% (ns)
- very dissatisfied       + 1% (ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC= ns
- very happy              - 2% (ns)
- quite happy             - 1% (ns)
- not very happy          + 2% (ns)
- not at all happy        + 2% (ns)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- employment
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- marital status


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gSelreport on single question:

In general, how do you feel about your life at present? I feel...
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not happy at all
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a higher probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a lower probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC< 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a lower probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a higher probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC = 0 No relationship between the independent and dependent variable..

Remarks:
The interpretation for the intermediate categories of the dependent variable are ambiguous. It is advised to use marginal effects.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl