Correlational finding on Happiness and Level of school-education
Subject code: E01ab02

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999
TitleSocial Capitel, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1205

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 1040
Our classificationLevel of school-education, code E01ab02
Operationalization
1. Lower education (reference category)
2. Middle education
3. Higher education
Observed distribution1: 58 % 2: 33 % 3: 9 %

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC= ns
probability of being more/less happy (vs lower 
educated)

MIDDLE EDUCATION
- very satisfied          - 1% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied      - 1% (ns)
- medium satisfied        - 0% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   + 0% (ns)
- very dissatisfied       + 1% (ns)

HIGH EDUCATION
- very satisfied          - 1% (ns)
- somewhat satisfied      - 1% (ns)
- medium satisfied        - 0% (ns)
- somewhat dissatisfied   + 1% (ns)
- very dissatisfied       + 2% (ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC= ns
MIDDLE EDUCATION
- very happy              - 1% (ns)
- quite happy             - 0% (ns)
- not very happy          + 0% (ns)
- not at all happy        + 1% (ns)

HIGH EDUCATION
- very happy              - 1% (ns)
- quite happy             - 0% (ns)
- not very happy          + 0% (ns)
- not at all happy        + 1% (ns)


OLRCs adjusted for:
- income
- employment
- age
- gender
- religiosity
- marital status


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gSelreport on single question:

In general, how do you feel about your life at present? I feel...
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not happy at all
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a higher probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a lower probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC< 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a lower probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a higher probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC = 0 No relationship between the independent and dependent variable..

Remarks:
The interpretation for the intermediate categories of the dependent variable are ambiguous. It is advised to use marginal effects.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl