Correlational finding on Happiness and Trust in institutions
Subject code: T04ab01

StudyEkici & Koydemir (2014a): study TR 1999
TitleSocial Capitel, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 118, 1031 - 1053
DOIdoi: 10,1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Turkey, 1999
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1205

Correlate
Author's labelInstitutional trust (confidence)
Page in Source 1038
Our classificationTrust in institutions, code T04ab01
Operationalization
Self report on question:
How much confidence do you have in
a.  the education system?
b.  the police?
c.  the civil service?
d.  the health care system?
e.  the justice system?
Rated: 
1 = none at all
2 = not very much
3 = quite a lot
4 = a great deal.
Observed distributionM = 2.61, SD = 0.81
Remarks
Cronbach's alpha = 0.85

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aOLRC=+ p < .01
Probability of being more/less happy when 
confident
- very satisfied          +5% (.01)
- somewhat satisfied      +5% (.01)
- medium satisfied        +1% (.01)
- somewhat dissatisfied   -3% (.01)
- very dissatisfied       -8% (.01)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gOLRC=+ p < .01
- very happy              +6% (.01)
- quite happy             +4% (.01)
- not very happy          -4% (.01)
- not at all happy        -5% (.01)

OLRCs adjusted for:
- income
- age
- employment status
- gender
- marital status
- religiosity


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-gSelreport on single question:

In general, how do you feel about your life at present? I feel...
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not happy at all
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a higher probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a lower probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC< 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a lower probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a higher probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC = 0 No relationship between the independent and dependent variable..

Remarks:
The interpretation for the intermediate categories of the dependent variable are ambiguous. It is advised to use marginal effects.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl