Correlational finding on Happiness and Use of alcohol
Subject code: S13ab01

StudyBorgatta et al. (1982): study US 1978 /1
TitleAlcohol Use and Abuse, Life Crisis Events, and the Elderly.
SourceResearch on Aging, 1982, Vol. 4, 378 - 408
URLhttp://roa.sagepub.com/content/4/3/378
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0164027582004003007
Public18+aged general public, USA 1978-80
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2994

Correlate
Author's labelProblem drinking (PRDRUNK)
Page in Source 392
Our classificationUse of alcohol, code S13ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on 2 questions:
a: Do you ever have occasion to use any alcoholic 
beverages such as liquor, winer or beer, or are you a 
total abstrainer?
- yes
- no
b: Do you sometimes drink more than you think you 
should?
- yes
- no
Problem drinker is 'yes' on both questions
Observed distributiona : 73%, b: 27% Problem drnkers 37%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.06
All
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=+.06 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.07
65- aged
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.07 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=-.03
45+ aged
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=-.05 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ar=+.01
65+ aged
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aBeta=0 ns
Beta's controled for
- age
- sexe
- education
- church attendance
- race
- satisfaction with family
- satisfaction with health
- life crisis events
- income
- belief that people are fair and helpful
- smoking
- urbanity

Correlations reported with Unhappiness, sign 
changed by WDH-team


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl