Correlational finding on Happiness and Change to better or worse
Subject code: I01aa02c

StudyShin & Johnson (1978): study US 1975
TitleAvowed Happiness as the Overall Assesment of the Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 475 - 492
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00352944
PublicHeads of households, Illinois, USA, 1975
Sample
Non-Response17%
Respondents N =665

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived financial improvement over time
Page in Source 483/487
Our classificationChange to better or worse, code I01aa02c
Operationalization
Self report on single question about the financial 
situation during the past few years: had it 'been 
worse', did it stay 'about the same', or had it been 
'getting better'.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.22 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.14
Beta controlled for:
- comparisons only
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.15
Beta controlled for:
- resources
- comparisons
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.07
Beta controlled for:
- assessments
- comparisons
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaBeta=+.07
Beta controlled for:
- comparisons
- resources
- assessments

Comparisons:
- perception of being happier than others
Resources:
- race
- sex
- age
- income
- education
- home ownership
- marital status
- number of children
- number of household members
Assessments: satisfaction with:
- standard of living
- leisure time
- housing
- health
- education
- community
- government


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl