Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Subject code: H04ab01a

StudyGoldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado
TitleThe Structure of Temporal Fear and Pleasure in Infants: A Psychometric Perspective.
SourceChild Development, 1990, Vol. 61, 1944 - 1964
Public9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =168

Correlate
Author's label2-week stability
Page in Source 1949-1951, 1956
Our classificationRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), code H04ab01a
Operationalization
Rating of cheerful appearance in laboratory; 2 
assessments with interval of 2 weeks;
The child is (or both twins are) placed in a high 
chair.
Peekaboo-Game:
On signal from familiar experimenter, th mother holds a 
cloth between her face and the child's face (just one 
of the twins). When lowering the cloth she says: 
"peekaboo" in a playful voice.
Procedure repeted 4 times. Then mother and 
experiementer changed roles.

Walking Finger Game:
With fingers, Mother walked her fingers up the chair 
toward the child saying: "I'm going to get you!" in a 
playful voice. Then she tickles the infant's tummy. 
This episode coninues for 15min and is assessed two 
times to each child (for twins alternatingly). Then 
mother and experimenter changed roles.
Observed distributionN ranges from 120 to 159

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-br=+.55 p < .05
JOY/PLEASURE (broad)
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bar=+.42 p < .05
JOY/SMILING (narrow)
Peekaboo with mother
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bar=+.37 p < .05
JOY/SMILING (narrow)
Peekaboo with experimenter
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bar=+.35 p < .05
JOY/SMILING (narrow)
Walking Finger with mother
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bar=+.20 p < .05
JOY/SMILING (narrow)
Walking Finger with experimenter
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bbr=+.50 p < .05
JOY/Laughter (narrow)
Peekaboo with mother
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bbr=+.50 p < .05
JOY/Laughter (narrow)
Peekaboo with experimenter
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bbr=+.26 p < .05
JOY/Laughter (narrow)
Walking Finger with mother
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bbr=+.46 p < .05
JOY/Laughter (narrow)
Walking Finger with experimenter


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bTime sampling of happy behaviors

Analisys of video recordings of child reactions in 4 situations
- Peekgaboo game
- with mother
- with experimenter
- Walking finger game
- with mother
- with experimenter

Each episode rated for the amount of pleasure during that period.
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-baTime sampling of happy behaviors

Analisys of video recordings of child reactions in 4 situations
- Peekgaboo game
- with mother
- with experimenter
- Walking finger game
- with mother
- with experimenter

Each measured in seconds:
a: latency to smile
b: duration of smiling
or rated on 3-step scale:
c: peak intensity of smile

Computation: (a+b+c)/3
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bbTime sampling of happy behaviors

Analisys of video recordings of child reactions in 4 situations
- Peekgaboo game
- with mother
- with experimenter
- Walking Finger game
- with mother
- with experimenter

Each measured in seconds:
a: latency to laugh
b: duration of laughing

Computation: (a+b)/2


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl