Correlational finding on Happiness and Trend happiness in employment categories
Subject code: E03ab01bd

StudyKnabe & Rštzel (2007): study DE 1992
TitleQuantifying the Psychological Costs of Unemployment: The Role of Permanent Income.
SourceWorking Paper No. 32, DIW, 2007, Berlin, Germany
URLhttp://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/61949/diw_sp0032.pdf
Public21-64 aged, Germany, followed 13 years ,1992-2005
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =152411

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployed
Page in Source 9, 11
Our classificationTrend happiness in employment categories, code E03ab01bd
Operationalization
0: Full-time employed (basegroup)
1: Unemployed

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dDM=
DM's measure change in life satisfaction to 
reference group "not unemployed" individuals
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.52 p < .01
All
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.62 p < .01
Men only
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.42 p < .01
Women only

OPRC's controlled for:
- long-term unemployment, longer than one year
- transitory income (truncated model)
- family status
- age, age squared
- number of children
- years of education
- house ownership
- health indicators

OPRC's cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size

Relative values denote that unemployment 
corresponds to 1,5 lower happiness in men compared 
to women.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a higher probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a lower probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC< 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a lower probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a higher probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC = 0 No relationship between the independent and dependent variable..

Remarks:
The interpretation for the intermediate categories of the dependent variable are ambiguous. It is advised to use marginal effects..
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl