Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier religion
Subject code: R12aa01

StudyBaker et al. (2005): study US 1986
TitleProductive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 73, 431 - 458
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-005-0805-6
Public60+ aged, USA, followed 3 years 1986-1989
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1279

Correlate
Author's labelReligious participation
Page in Source 443
Our classificationEarlier religion, code R12aa01
Operationalization
Index od selfreported religious activities over the 
past year: 
- religious service attendance
- read religious books
- watch or listen to religious programs

Rated: 1 never to 6 more than once a week
Observed distributionRange: 0-15, M = 7,8, SD = 4,3
Remarks
Assessed at T1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.08 p < .05
T1 religious participation by T2 happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.11 p < .05
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aab=+.02 ns
B (+.021) controlled for:
- T1 activity in voluntary associations
- T1 health
- T1 social support
- Demographic variables
   - age
   - gender
   - education
   - race
   - marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.02 p < .05
B (+.021) controlled for:
- T1 activity in voluntary associations
- T1 health
- T1 social support
- Demographic variables
   - age
   - gender
   - education
   - race
   - marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.01 ns
B (+0,006) additionally controlled for:
- T1 happiness (indicating CHANGE in happiness)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl