Correlational findings

Study Adams (1988): study US 1981

62+ aged, white non-married females, middle class suburb of Chicago, USA. followed 1981-84
N = 70
Non Response
Dropout : 27% due to incapacity, 13% refusal
Multiple assesment methods
Depth interview (T1), mailed questionnaire and telephone interview (T2)


Authors's Label
Number of emotionally close friends
Our Classification
Ss were first asked to list the persons they consider as friends. Next they indicated which of these are emotionally close.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.17 ns Synchronic correlation at T1.

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.38 p < .05 Synchronic correlation at T2.
The correlation has increased between T1 and T2 (difference in r .21).

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a rpc = +.12 ns Diachronic correlation: T1 emotionally close friends by T2 happiness, controlled for T1 happiness.
Rpc indicates the effect of earlier emotionally close friends on later CHANGE IN HAPPINESS.

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a rpc = +.20 ns Diachronic correlation: T1 happiness by T2 emotionally close friends, controlled for T1 emotionally close friends.
Rpc indicates the EFFECT OF EARLIER HAPPINESS on later change of emotionally close friends.

The effect of emotionally close friends on happiness appears somewhat smaller than the effect of happiness on emotionally close friends
(difference in rpc .08).