Correlational findings

Study Adams (1988): study US 1981

62+ aged, white non-married females, middle class suburb of Chicago, USA. followed 1981-84
N = 70
Non Response:
Dropout : 27% due to incapacity, 13% refusal
Multiple methods
Depth interview (T1), mailed questionnaire and telephone interview (T2)


Authors's label
Number of local friends
Our Classification
Ss were asked to list the persons they consider as friends. Next they indicated which of these lived in the same town.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.22 p < .05 Diachronic correlation at T1.

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.06 ns Synchronic correlation at T2.
The correlation has decreased between T1 and T2 (difference in r .16)

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a rpc = +.00 ns Diachronic correlation: T1 local friends by T2 happiness, controlled for T1 happiness.
Rpc indicates the effect of earlier local friends on later CHANGE IN HAPPINESS.

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a rpc = +.30 p < .10 Diachronic correlation: T1 happiness by T2 local friends, controlled for T1 local friends.   
Rpc indicates the EFFECT OF EARLIER HAPPINESS on later change in local friends.

The effect of local friends on happiness appears considerably smaller than the effect of happiness on local friends (difference in rpc .30).