Correlational findings

Study Adams (1988): study US 1981

62+ aged, white non-married females, middle class suburb of Chicago, USA. followed 1981-84
N =
Non Response
Dropout : 27% due to incapacity, 13% refusal
Multiple assesment methods
Depth interview (T1), mailed questionnaire and telephone interview (T2)


Authors's Label
Interaction with friends
Our Classification
Ss were first asked to list the persons they consider as friends. Next they estimated the number of contacts in the last year with each of these.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.26 p < .05 Synchronic correlation at T1.     

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.12 ns Synchronic correlation at T2.     
The correlation has decreased between T1 and T2.
(difference in r .14).

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a rpc = +.04 ns Diachronic correlation: T1 interaction by T2 happiness, controlled for T1 happiness.
Rpc indicates the effect of earlier interaction on later CHANGE IN HAPPINESS.

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a rpc = +.08 ns Diachronic correlation: T1 happiness by T2 interaction, controlled for T1 interaction.
Rpc indicates the EFFECT OF EARLIER HAPPINESS on later change in interaction.

There is neither effect of interaction on happiness, nor effect of happiness on interaction