Correlational findings

Study Adams (1988): study US 1981

62+ aged, white non-married females, middle class suburb of Chicago, USA. followed 1981-84
N = 70
Non Response
Dropout : 27% due to incapacity, 13% refusal
Multiple assesment methods
Depth interview (T1), mailed questionnaire and telephone interview (T2)


Authors's Label
Number of friends
Our Classification
Ss were asked to list the persons they consider as friends. The persons mentioned were counted.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.21 p < .10 Synchronic correlation at T1 (1981). A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a r = +.15 ns Synchronic correlation at T2 (1984)
The correlation has decreased between T1 and T2 (difference in r .06).
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a rpc = +.21 p < .10 Diachronic correlation: T1 friends by T2 happiness, controlled for T1 happiness.      
Rpc indicates the effect of earlier friends on later CHANGE IN HAPPINESS.

A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a rpc = +.27 p < .05 Diachronic correlation: T1 happiness by T2 friends, controlled for T1 friends.             Rpc indicates the EFFECT OF EARLIER HAPPINESS on later change in friends.

The effect of friends on happiness appears somewhat smaller than the effect of happiness on friends (difference in rpc .06).