Study Kammann & Flett (1983a): study NZ 1980 /1
- 18+ aged, general public, Dunedin, New Zealand, 198?
- N = 112
- Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Administered at home
- Authors's Label
- Felt hopeless
- Our Classification
- Single direct question how one felt during the instructed time period (or otherwise in the past few weeks):
"How often have you felt hopeless?"
Rated on a 5-point scale ranging from
'not at all' to 'all the time'