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Correlational findings

Study Sarmiento et al. (2021): study DE 2005

Public
Adult general public, Germany, followed 13 years 2005-2018
Survey name
DE-SOEP combined waves
Sample
Respondents
N =
Non Response
11256
Assessment
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Effect of Low Emission Zone
Our Classification
Remarks
Low emision zones are meant to reduce airpollution. In this case it involved driving restrictions in urban centers
Distribution
N = 1: 1461; 0: 19556



N = 1: 1461; o: 19556
CORange: -.319 to 3.248; M=0,439; SD=0,253
NO2Range: -.127 to 246.357; M=42,341; SD=22,604
O3Range: -1.922 to 154.943; M=40,745; SD=23,350
PM10Range: -2.875 to 563.966; M=24,519; SD=14,716

Living in LEZ İndividual N:20963
Related specification variables
Operationalization
1: living in low emission zone
0: living outside low emission zone

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.16 p < .01 CHANGE INDIVIDUAL HAPPINESS since driving restrictions
Restricted (vs all not-restricted)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d DM = AVERAGE HAPPINESS
Inside low emission zones   M = 7,12  SD = 1,73
Outside low emission zones  M = 7,10  SD = 1,76
- difference                   +0,02      -0,03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.19 p < .01 Restricted (vs people living >25 km from nearest low emision zone) O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.14 p < .01 Restricted (vs people living in otherwise similar counties)

Loss of happiness among restricted was most pronounced right after the introduction of a low emission zone.

The loss of happiness exsisted in spite of less air pollution and better health

The loss of happiness was greater among;
- car owners (vs non-ownners)
- < 65 aged (vs >65 aged)

The loss of happiness was similar among
- owners of a diesel moter car
- income quartiles
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d DM = +/- CHANGE AVERAGE HAPPINESS 2005-2018
Inside and outside low emision zones