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Correlational findings

Study Sörensen (2014): study ZZ EU 27 2008

Public:
18+ aged general public European Union, 2008
Survey name:
EU-EVS
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 29188
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Living area
Our Classification
Remarks
Order and hence sign of correlation reversed by WDH team to fit WDH standard classification of this variable
Distribution
Rural areas: 30%, Town areas: 45%, City areas: 25%
Related specification variables
Operationalization
1 Rural areas (Fewer than 5001 inhabitants)
0 Non-rural areas
   a) Town areas (with 5001 to 100,000 inhabitants)
   b) City areas (more than 100,000 inhabitants)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a DM = +/-              EU-27    EU-12    EU-7    EU-8
             All      high     middle  low
Rural    M = 7,02     7,63     7,03    6,50   
Town     M = 7,25*    7,60     7,23*   6,49
City     M = 6,98     7,37*    7,01    6,55
* = significantly happier
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a Lgt = +/-             EU-27    EU-12    EU-7     EU-8
            All      high     middle   low
vs rural  
-Town lgt = +.01(ns) -.02(ns) +.03(ns) -.06(ns)
-City lgt = -.22(01) -.21(01) -.24(01) -.21(01)

EU-12: Rich countries
EU-7:  Middle income countries
EU-8:  Low income countries

Lgt denotes points difference in happiness after control for:
- Age
- Gender
- Health
- Family and children
- Education
- Employment status
- Monthly household income

Larger when addionally controled for:
- Control over one's own life
- Belonging to a locality/town
Smaller when additionally controled for:
- Voluntary work
- People helpful