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Correlational findings

Study Biyase & Naanwaab (2021): study ZA 2008

Public:
17+ aged general public South Africa, followed 9 years 2088-2016
Survey name:
SA-NIDS
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 28000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper

Correlate

Authors's Label
Household variables
Our Classification
Related specification variables
Operationalization
Presence in the house of:
a) chemical toilet
b) pit latrine with ventilator
c) pit latrine without ventilator
d) bucket toilet
e) other toilet
f) no toilet
g) water toilet (refernce)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.66 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by Chemical toilet vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b = -.69(01)
- urban dwellers b = -.33(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.57 p < .01 CHANGE happiness by Chemical toilet vs water toilet vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b-fix = -.65(01)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.33(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.08 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by Pit latrine with ventilation pipe vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b = -.07(ns)
- urban dwellers b = -.19(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.02 ns CHANGE happiness by Pit latrine with ventilation pipe vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b-fix = -.65(01)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.09(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.25 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by Pit latrine without ventilation pipe vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b = -.26(01)
- urban dwellers b = -.24(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.17 p < .01 CHANGE happiness by Pit latrine without ventilation pipe vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b-fix = -.24(01)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.10(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.21 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by Bucket toilet vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b = -.19(01)
- urban dwellers b = -.26(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = +.00 ns CHANGE happiness by Bucket toilet vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b-fix = -.08(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = +.07(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.53 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by No toilet vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b = -.46(01)
- urban dwellers b = -.66(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.31 p < .01 CHANGE happiness by No toilet vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b-fix = -.34(01)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.31(10)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.01 ns CURRENT happiness by Other vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b = -.15(ns)
- urban dwellers b = +.19(ns)

b controled for
- gender
- age
- ethinicity
- marital status
- employment
- household size
- household facilities
- religion
- crime
- trust
- income
- expected improvement
- perceived relative income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = +.07 ns CHANGE happiness by Other vs water toilet
- rural dwellers b-fix = +.17(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.05(ns)

b-fix additionally controled for
- happiness 2 years ago (to capture change)