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Correlational findings

Study Biyase & Naanwaab (2021): study ZA 2008

Public:
17+ aged general public South Africa, followed 9 years 2088-2016
Survey name:
SA-NIDS
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 28000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper

Correlate

Authors's Label
Culture (Language)
Our Classification
Related specification variables
Operationalization
a) IsiNdebele
b) IsiXhosa
c) IsiZulu
d) Sepedi
e) Sesotho
f) Setswana
g) SiSwati
h) Tshivenda
i) IsiTsonga
j) Afrikaans
k) English (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.69 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by IsiNdebele (vs English)
- rural dwellers b = -.53(ns)
- urban dwellers b = -.80(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.21 ns CHANGE happiness by IsiNdebele (vs English)
- rural dwellers b-fix = +.57(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.38(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.61 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by IsiXhosa (vs English)
- rural dwellers b = -.76(10)
- urban dwellers b = -.44(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.26 ns CHANGE happiness by IsiXhosa (vs English)
- rural dwellers b-fix = +.18(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.12(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.65 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by IsiZulu (vs English)
- rural dwellers b = -.67(10)
- urban dwellers b = -.58(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.31 p < .10 CHANGE happiness by IsiZulu (vs English)
- rural dwellers b-fix = +.29(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.29(10)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.45 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by Sepedi (vs English)
- rural dwellers b = -.39(ns)
- urban dwellers b = -.55(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.18 ns CHANGE happiness by Sepedi (vs English)
- rural dwellers b-fix = +.51(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.34(10)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.35 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by Sesotho (vs English)
- rural dwellers b = -.28(ns)
- urban dwellers b = -.32(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.14 ns CHANGE happiness by Sesotho (vs English)
- rural dwellers b-fix = +.40(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.12(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.04 ns CURRENT happiness by Setswana (vs English)
- rural dwellers b = +.12(ns)
- urban dwellers b = -.17(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = +.05 ns CHANGE happiness by Setswana (vs English)
- rural dwellers b-fix = +.80(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.07(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.78 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by SiSwati (vs English)
- rural dwellers b = -.74(10)
- urban dwellers b = -.88(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.99 p < .01 CHANGE happiness by SiSwati (vs English)
- rural dwellers b-fix = -.31(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -1.36(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.64 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by Tshivenda (vs English)
- rural dwellers b = -.66(10)
- urban dwellers b = -.52(10)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.11 ns CHANGE happiness by Tshivenda (vs English)
- rural dwellers b-fix = +.50(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.14(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = -.91 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by IsiTsonga (vs English)
- rural dwellers b = -.92(05)
- urban dwellers b = -.78(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = -.78 p < .01 CHANGE happiness by IsiTsonga (vs English)
- rural dwellers b-fix = -.15(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = -.77(01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b = +.25 p < .01 CURRENT happiness by Afrikaans (vs English)
- rural dwellers b = +.13(ns)
- urban dwellers b = +.29(01)

b controled for
- gender
- age
- ethinicity
- marital status
- employment
- household size
- household facilities
- religion
- crime
- trust
- income
- expected improvement
- perceived relative income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa b-fix = +.24 p < .10 CHANGE happiness by Afrikaans (vs English)
- rural dwellers b-fix = +.58(ns)
- urban dwellers b-fix = +.24(10)

b-fix additionally controled for
- happiness 2 years ago (to capture change)