Correlational findings

Study Pinquart & Schindler (2007): study DE 1984

Retirees, Germany, followed 19 years, 1984-2003
Survey name:
DE-SOEP combined waves
N = 1456
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Retirement trajectory
Our Classification
data from 1984-2003 (T1-T20)
N=A=127, B=219, C=1110
Retired: shifed from receiving wages (if employed) or benefits (if unemployed) to drawing pensions,
Happiness assessed 18 years before retirement and 18 years after,

Three types of change in happiness over retirement proces identified using latent Growth Mixure modeling (LGMM)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d Ma = + s Happiness at the first time of measurement after retirement

          Ma(SD)       CI95   
Type 1    5.47(1.03)   [4.94-6.00]
Type 2    5.92(1.01)   [5.36-6.48]
Type 3    7.60(0.90)   [7.45-7.75]

Ma controlled for
- age at retirement
- gender
- socioeconomic status score
- marital status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d Ma = -/+ Type 1 (N = 127): strong decline in happiness after retirement, however, they returned to their level of preretirement happinesss over the long run. O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d Ma = -+- s Type 2 (N = 219): significant increase in happiness after retirement but also the strongest decrease in that measure in the years before retirement and in the years after retirement, it faced a background of overall declining trajectories. O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d Ma = 0/0 Type 3 (N = 1110): very small temporary increase in happiness after retirement, almost no effect on happiness trajectory.