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Correlational findings

Study Crowley (1986): study US 1981

Public:
54-69 aged men, USA, 1981
Survey name:
US-National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men 1976
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 1200
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Reason for retirement
Our Classification
Distribution
A: 2%; B: 27%; C:  4%; D: 31%; E; 10%
Operationalization
Selfreport, categorized into five groups:
A:  Mandatory age: although employers had a mandatory retirement age, they would prefer to continue working past if allowed.
B:  Health problem: reported had health problem prior to retirement.
C: Discouraged worker: experiencing a period of unemployment prior to withdrawal from the labor force.
D: Voluntary early retired before age 65 or mandated age by their employer
E: Voluntary normal: retired at age 65 or mandatory age and  they would not prefer to continue working beyond age.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-k DM = Mandatory age          M = 3.49
- 60% very happy
- 32% somewhat happy
- 5% somewhat unhappy
- 3% very unhappy
Health problem         M = 3.18
- 36% very happy
- 49% somewhat happy
- 12% somewhat unhappy
- 3% very unhappy
Discouraged worker     M = 3.46
- 49% very happy
- 48% somewhat happy
- 3% somewhat unhappy
- 0% very unhappy
Voluntary early        M = 3.53
- 58% very happy
- 38% somewhat happy
- 3% somewhat unhappy
- 1% very unhappy
Voluntary normal       M = 3.62
- 66% very happy
- 31% somewhat happy
- 2% somewhat unhappy
- 1% very unhappy

Mean happiness computed from scale range 1-4
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a DM = Mandatory age          M = 1.90
Health problem         M = 0.8
Discouraged worker     M = 1.46
Voluntary early        M = 2.25
Voluntary normal       M = 2.36

Possible range Affect Balance: -5 to +5