Correlational findings

Study Burton et al. (1993): study US 1976

55-69 aged men, USA, followed 5 years, 1976-1981
Survey name:
US-National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men 1976
N = 2285
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Role confuguration
Our Classification
T1. 1976, T2. 1981 Excluded those who were not employed at T1, not retired or employed at T2, and unmarried at T1.
N (white men): A=922, B=59, C=600, D=128
N (black men): A=274, B=38, C=167, D=103
Related specification variables
A married/spouse only
B employed/worker only
C married and employed (worker and spouse)
D no roles: retired men who aren not marrried and unemployed (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-c-sq-v-4-j DM = + T2 Happiness by T2 Roles
                   White   Black  Difference
no role        M = 3.22    3.37   0.15(ns)
worker         M = 3.36    3.47   0.11(05)
spouse role    M = 3.50    3.38   0.12(05)
worker+spouse  M = 3.54    3.53   0.01(ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-j Beta = +/- T1-T2 CHANGE on Happiness by Roles at
                T1         T2
Worker only (vs no role)
- All           +.10(ns)   +.03(ns)
- whites        +.00(ns)   +.00(ns)
- blacks        +.21(ns)   +.07(ns)
Spouse only (vs no role)
- All           -.18(05)   +.20(01)
- whites        -.18(ns)   +.21(01)
- blacks        -.21(ns)   +.17(ns)
Worker + spouse  (vs no role)
- all           -.08(ns)   +.19(01)
- whites        -.07(ns)   +.17(05)
- blacks        -.11(ns)   +.23(05)

Betas with T2 happiness controlled for
- T1 happiness (to capture change)
- education
- T2 region of the country
- T2 city size
- T1 role in spouse only
- T1 role in worker only
- T1 role in worker and spouse
- T2 role in spouse only
- T2 role in worker only