print

Correlational findings

Study Burton et al. (1993): study US 1976

Public:
55-69 aged men, USA, followed 5 years, 1976-1981
Survey name:
US-National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men 1976
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 2285
Non Response:
16.7%
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Role confuguration
Our Classification
Remarks
T1. 1976, T2. 1981 Excluded those who were not employed at T1, not retired or employed at T2, and unmarried at T1.
Distribution
N (white men): A=922, B=59, C=600, D=128
N (black men): A=274, B=38, C=167, D=103
Related specification variables
Operationalization
A married/spouse only
B employed/worker only
C married and employed (worker and spouse)
D no roles: retired men who aren not marrried and unemployed (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-c-sq-v-4-j DM = + T2 Happiness by T2 Roles
                   White   Black  Difference
no role        M = 3.22    3.37   0.15(ns)
worker         M = 3.36    3.47   0.11(05)
spouse role    M = 3.50    3.38   0.12(05)
worker+spouse  M = 3.54    3.53   0.01(ns)
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-j Beta = +/- T1-T2 CHANGE on Happiness by Roles at
                T1         T2
Worker only (vs no role)
- All           +.10(ns)   +.03(ns)
- whites        +.00(ns)   +.00(ns)
- blacks        +.21(ns)   +.07(ns)
Spouse only (vs no role)
- All           -.18(05)   +.20(01)
- whites        -.18(ns)   +.21(01)
- blacks        -.21(ns)   +.17(ns)
Worker + spouse  (vs no role)
- all           -.08(ns)   +.19(01)
- whites        -.07(ns)   +.17(05)
- blacks        -.11(ns)   +.23(05)

Betas with T2 happiness controlled for
- T1 happiness (to capture change)
- education
- T2 region of the country
- T2 city size
- T1 role in spouse only
- T1 role in worker only
- T1 role in worker and spouse
- T2 role in spouse only
- T2 role in worker only