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Correlational findings

Study Esaiasson et al. (2019): study ZZ Europe 2008

Public:
18+ aged, general public, 31 European nations, 2008
Survey name:
EU-EVS
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 40000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Dissatisfaction with democracy
Our Classification
Remarks
Negative correlation with DISsatisatisfaction in nation implies positive correlation with satisfaction. Sign changed accordingly by WDH team
Operationalization
Selfreported dissatisfaction with democracy in nation.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.05 p < .001 b controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - general trust
  - religiosity
- country fixed effects
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.13 p < .001 b additionally controlled for:
- individual characteristic
  - perception of system performance

Happiness used as an independent variable (predictor) in this cross-sectional analysis