print

Correlational findings

Study Cheung (2018): study DE 1984

Public:
18+ aged, general public, Germany followed 30 years 1984 - 2013
Survey name:
DE-SOEP 1992-2012
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 4484400
Non Response:
183108 observations excluded because of incomplete data.
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Tax and Welfare (change income due to government tranfers)
Our Classification
Distribution
not reported
Operationalization
Individual-level government taxation was calculated by subtracting post-government income (log) from pre-government income (log), to capture the change in income  from taxes, welfare and other sources of government transfer. A positive outcome means that participants had higher pre-government income than post-government income (paid more than received).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d r = +.15 p < .001 No controls, all waves,all 16 states.