Correlational findings

Study Muffels et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2008

18+ aged general public, 47 countries, 2008
Survey name
N = 67216
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Index of extrinsic work orientations
Our Classification
Selfreport on  questions on how people judge the importance of a particular job aspect as derived from Kalleberg (1977).

The score 1 is assigned when a job aspect was viewed as important and the score 0 when it was not mentioned. The work orientations index was created, representing the average score over the intrinsic and extrinsic work orientations scales.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a OPRC = -.05 p < .05 AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE extrinsic work orientation

OPRC controlled for :
- Personal characteristics
  - age, age squared, age cubed
  - gender
  - marital status
  - employmnet status
  - bad health
- Nation characteristics
  - GDP growth
  - unemployment rate
  - attitudinal climate
    - belief in altruism
    - importance family and children
    - trust in peole/institutions
    - importance friends
    - post-materialist values: pure, mixed
    - leisure values
    - work orientation: intrinsic, extrinsic
    - work values (work ethos, work first)
    - religious values
    - traditional gender values