Correlational findings

Study Muffels et al. (2012): study ZZ Europe 2008

18+ aged general public, 47 countries, 2008
Survey name
N = 67216
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Modernization Values Index Score
Our Classification
Related specification variables
Modernization value index is constructed by combining various self-report indices of
a. egalitarian gender roles
b.leisure activities
c. intrinsic work values
d. post materialistic value orientations but lower importance to religion and work values.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = + AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE endorsement of modernization values in 47 countries O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a OPRC = +.02 p < .05 INDIVIDUAL happines by INDIVIDUAL endorsement of modernization Values

OPRC controlled for (model 9):
- Individual characterisrtics
  - age, age squared, age cubed
  - employmnet status
  - marital status
  - bad health
  - gender
  - income
    - log relative HH income
    - log household income
    - Low income status
- nation characteristics
  - log GDP/capita
  - unemployment rate
  - income inequality (GINI)
  - Average endorsement of social values
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a OPRC = -.07 OPRC adiitionally controlled for (model 14):
- Individual characteristics
  - Education
  - Marital status
  - Number of children
  - Death of a child event
  - Religion
    - Church Attendence
  - Social Participation
- nation characteristics
  - GDP annual growth rate
  - modernity (HDI)
- Cross lvel interactions
  - Social values*HDI
  - Modernization values*HDI
  -  Social values*GINI
  -  Modernization values*GINI

When the control variables are added the coefficient of Modernization values becomes negative and insignificant.

Stronger in the more equal nations
Stronger in the most modern nations