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Correlational findings

Study Michel et al. (2019): study ZZ EU 27 1980

Public:
15+ aged, 27 nations, Europe, 1980-2011
Survey name:
EU-Eurobarometer combined waves
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 900000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
National advertising expenditures
Our Classification
Operationalization
Log national advertising expenditures per year p.c.?? 1980-2011 in constant 2005 million USD.
A Expenditures previous year
B Expenditures mean of past 3 years
C Expenditures same year

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b = -.07 p < .05 A O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b = -.10 p < .05 B

b's controlled for:
- age and age squared
- unemployed
- married
- male
- size of household
- education level
- national unemployment rate
- log GDP p.c.
- year and nation dummies

A and B
b's not significantly affected when additionally controlled for:
- GDP of previous year

B
b not significantly affected when additionally controlled for:
- GDP p.c. of 2 previous years
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b = -.09 p < .05 A

b additionally controlled for:
- GDP p.c. of 2 previous years
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b = -.05 p < .10 C

b controlled for:
- age and age squared
- unemployed
- married
- male
- size of household
- education level
- national unemployment rate
- log GDP p.c.
- year and nation dummies