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Correlational findings

Study Laaksonen (2018): study ZZ Europe 2008

Public:
15+ aged general public, 30 EU nations, 2008-2013
Survey name:
EU-ESS 4-6, 2008-2012
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 155500
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Age
Our Classification
Operationalization
Current age in years

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Special Research Type Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a b = - p < .0001 Cross-national b controlled for:
- gender


Happiness keeps falling with growing age, decine is lower at higher ages.
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a b = +/- p < .0001 Cross-national b additionally controlled for:
- objective income
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a b = +/- p < .0001 Cross-national b additionally controlled for:
- education

When only controlling for income and education the lowest happiness level in life-time is at a much higher age for females (64.5) than for males (56.3)
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-a b = +/- p < .0001 Cross-national b additionally controlled for:
- self-perceived health

When controlling for health the U-shape pattern is more pronounced, i.e. the age of the lowest level of happiness in lifetime is much earlier (40-50), while there is no turning point at old age: happiness keeps rising, even higher than at the age of 15.