Correlational findings

Study Welsch (2006): study ZZ EU 10 1990

15+ aged, general public 10 EU nations 1990-1997
Survey name:
EU-Eurobarometer combined waves
N = 240000
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
Change air pollution in nation
Our Classification
Micro grams per cubic meter of:
A: Nitrogen dioxide concentration
B: Lead

Assessed per country per year

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b-fix = + CHANGE log AVERAGE happiness by CHANGE log air-pollution in 8 nations over 8 years.

Concentrations of nitrogen and lead were considerably reduced in this period
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b-fix = +.04 Belgium O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b-fix = +12 Demark O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b-fix = +.06 France O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b-fix = +.04 Germany (west) O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b-fix = +.05 Greece O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b-fix = +.03 Luxembourg O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b-fix = +.09 Netherlands

The financial equivalents of these gains in happiness range from$ 1076 (greece) to $ 3113 (Denmark)

Change in particles concentration left out.
Change data unavailable for Portugal, Spain and the UK.