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Correlational findings

Study Beja Jr. (2013): study ZZ 2000

Public:
Married women, 44 nations, 2000
Survey name:
WorldValuesSurvey 5
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 14013
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Income
Our Classification
Operationalization
Selfreport on a 10-point scale from 1 ( 'lowest decile') to 10 ('highest decile'). 2 consecutive values are collapsed to form 5 subjective income categories with Quintile 1 as the reference state.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +              ECONOMIC LEVEL NATION
            UPPER     MIDDLE     LOWER
Income      b      p<   b    p<    b    p<
Quintile 2 + .27  .05  +.15 .05  + .43 .01
Quintile 3 + .69  .01  +.54 .01  +1.12 .01
Quintile 4 +1.08  .01  +.91 .01  +1.85 .01
Quintile 5 +1.33  .01  +.89 .01  +2.63 .01

b's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
      - age (+ age squared)
      - education
      - employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = + When additonally controlled for:
- NATIONAL characteristics:
     - GDP p.c.(GDPPPC)
     - Female labour participation rate(LABOR)

             ECONOMIC LEVEL NATION
            UPPER     MIDDLE     LOWER
Income      b      p<   b    p<    b    p<
Quintile 2 + .22  .05  +.20 .01  + .44 .01
Quintile 3 + .62  .01  +.58 .01  +1.16 .01
Quintile 4 + .90  .01  +.87 .01  +1.84 .01
Quintile 5 +1.04  .01  +.76 .01  +2.77 .01

Additional control for log(GDPPC) and log(LABOR)gives similar results.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +/- When additonally controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
     - perceived fate control
     - financial satisfaction
     - selffulfillment

             ECONOMIC LEVEL NATION
            UPPER     MIDDLE     LOWER
Income      b      p<   b    p<    b    p<
Quintile 2 + .07   ns  -.08  ns  + .31 .05
Quintile 3 + .08   ns  +.06  ns  + .41 .01
Quintile 4 + .14   ns  +.08  ns  + .64 .01
Quintile 5 + .14   ns  -.11  ns  + .93 .01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = + When additonally controlled for NATIONAL AND INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
- NATION CHARACTERISTICS:
    - GDP P.C.
    - Female labor participation rate
- INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS:
     - perceived fate control
     - financial satisfaction
     - selffulfillment

             ECONOMIC LEVEL NATION
            UPPER     MIDDLE     LOWER
Income      b      p<   b    p<    b    p<
Quintile 2 + .04   ns  -.05  ns  + .32 .05
Quintile 3 + .05   ns  +.10  ns  + .44 .01
Quintile 4 + .06   ns  +.11  ns  + .69 .01
Quintile 5 + .01   ns  -.14  ns  +1.09 .01

Additional control for log nation characteristics gives similar results