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Correlational findings

Study Beja Jr. (2013): study ZZ 2000

Public:
Married women, 44 nations, 2000
Survey name:
WorldValuesSurvey 5
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 14013
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Educational attainment
Our Classification
Operationalization
0 No formal education (reference)
1 Completed elementary school
2 Completed high school
3 Completed college

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +                       ECONOMIC LEVEL NATION
                 UPPER     MIDDLE     LOWER
                 b     p<  b     p<   b     p<
Elementary       +.33  ns  +.37 .01   +.33 .01
High school      +.38 .05  +.10  ns   +.63 .01
College          +.46  05  +.06  ns   +.83 .01

b's controlled for:
- INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
      - age (+ age squared)
      - income
      - employment status
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = + When additonally controlled for:
- NATIONAL characteristics:
     - GDP p.c.(GDPPPC)
     - Female labour participation rate(LABOR)

                      ECONOMIC LEVEL NATION
                 UPPER     MIDDLE     LOWER
                 b     p<  b     p<   b     p<
Elementary       +.24  ns  +.37 .01   +.33 .01
High school      +.25  ns  +.10  ns   +.63 .01
College          +.36  ns  +.06  ns   +.83 .01

Additional control for log(GDPPC) and log(LABOR)did not affect b.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = + When additionally controlled for:
INDIVIDUAL characteristics:
- Perceived fate control
- Financial satisfaction
- Selffulfillment

                      ECONOMIC LEVEL NATION
                 UPPER     MIDDLE     LOWER
                 b     p<  b     p<   b     p<
Elementary       +.29  ns  +.16 .05   +.19 .05
High school      +.34 .05  -.03  ns   +.32 .01
College          +.24  ns  +.07  ns   +.47 .01

Similar results when additionally controlled for national characteristics