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Correlational findings

Study Berger (2013): study DE 1994

Public:
Mothers, Germany, followed 15 years, 1994-2009
Survey name:
DE-SOEP combined waves
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 5150
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Maternal employment
Our Classification
Operationalization
3: full-time employed (reference)
2: part-time employed
    a: on a long-term basis
    b: on a short-term basis
1: unemployed
0: not in labourforce
    a: for family reasons
    b: for labour market reasons
    c: no intention to work

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.10 p < .05 Not employed                  (vs full-time)
- for family reasons       b = -.10(05)
  similar for:
  - high/low income
  - education levels
  - earlier unmployment
  stronger for:
  - poor job opportunities
- for labourmarket reasons b = -.15(01)
- does not want            b = -.02(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.11 p < .05 Part-time employed,short-term  (vs full-time)
  similar for:
  - education levels
  stronger for:
  - low income
  reversed for:
  - child below age 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.03 ns Part-time employed, long-term (vs full-time) O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.43 p < .01 Unemployed                     (vs full-time)

b-fix's controled for:
- total household income

b-fix's stronger when controled for residual income (household income minus mother's income)

All b's further controled for:
- age
- education
- family situation
  - partnered
  - age of children
  - pregnant
  - person needing care in household
- health
  - disabled
  - self rated
- self-employed (if employed)
- region
- municipality size
- year dummies