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Correlational findings

Study Berger (2013): study DE 1994

Public:
Mothers, Germany, followed 15 years, 1994-2009
Survey name:
DE-SOEP combined waves
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 5150
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Maternal employment
Our Classification
Remarks
Reasons for not working assessed using questions on intentions to engage in paid employment and reasons for no doing that 32364 person/yesr observations
Distribution
3:187%. 2a: 22%,, 2b:15%. 1: 7%, 0a: 22%, 0b:7%, 0c:9%
Related specification variables
Operationalization
3: full-time employed (reference)
2: part-time employed
    a: on a long-term basis
    b: on a short-term basis
1: unemployed
0: not in labourforce
    a: for family reasons
    b: for labour market reasons
    c: no intention to work

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.10 p < .05 Not employed                  (vs full-time)
- for family reasons       b = -.10(05)
  similar for:
  - high/low income
  - education levels
  - earlier unmployment
  stronger for:
  - poor job opportunities
- for labourmarket reasons b = -.15(01)
- does not want            b = -.02(ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.11 p < .05 Part-time employed,short-term  (vs full-time)
  similar for:
  - education levels
  stronger for:
  - low income
  reversed for:
  - child below age 1
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.03 ns Part-time employed, long-term (vs full-time) O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.43 p < .01 Unemployed                     (vs full-time)

b-fix's controled for:
- total household income

b-fix's stronger when controled for residual income (household income minus mother's income)

All b's further controled for:
- age
- education
- family situation
  - partnered
  - age of children
  - pregnant
  - person needing care in household
- health
  - disabled
  - self rated
- self-employed (if employed)
- region
- municipality size
- year dummies