Correlational findings

Study Hills et al. (2015): study ZZ Europe 1973 /1

18+ aged, general public, 6 EU nations, 1973-2000
Survey name
EU-Eurobarometer 1973-2000
N = 190
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Positive/negative valence of words used in books in nations
Our Classification
Examples of rated valence of words in English: Ability: 7.0, Abide: 5.52, Abort: 3.1
Range average valence in nations: 5,302 to 6.07, M : 5,72, SD: 0,114
Positive and negative valence scores of 1003 words in 6 different languages.

A Valence of words:  Individuals in each nation/language were asked to rate a list of words on how those words make them feel. Next these words were rated on a 1-9 valence scale from negative to positive. Around 1000 words per language were rated this way.

B Use of these words  in books 1800-2009.
In Google Books, texts in books from 1800-2009 were analyzed on the frequency of words and their valance in each language, using the words list and the ratings.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b OR = 1.47 p < .01 Time series analysis up to 2000 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b OR = 1.38 p < .01 OR controled for log GDP O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b OR = 1.39 p < .01 Time series analysis extended to 2009 instead of 2000. O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b OR = 2.18 p < .01 Without Spain and France