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Correlational findings

Study Clark et al. (2015): study DE 1992

Public:
16+ aged general public, Germany, followed 14 years; 1992-2012
Survey name:
DE-SOEP 1992-2012
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 368000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Poverty
Our Classification
Remarks
Assessed every years b, c and d only individuals who participated more than 10 years in the panel
Operationalization
Yearly equivalence household income
1) Poor, below 60% of median equivalent income in nation
0) Not poor

a) Incidence: whether individual is poor
b) Intensity: how poor an individual is
c) Chronic poverty: occurrence of periods of poverty
d) Persistence of poverty: to what extent those periods are linked together
e) Past poverty

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Special Research Type Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.13 p < .01 Longitudinal Incidence of poverty O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.50 p < .01 Longitudinal Intensity of poverty O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.04 p < .05 Longitudinal Past poverty (scarring) O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = +.13 p < .10 Longitudinal Persistence of poverty O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b-fix = -.07 p < .05 none Chronic poverty

b-fix's  controlled for:
- Employment status
- Age group
- Number of  years of education
- Marital status
- Dummy for East Germany
- Number of children in the household