Correlational findings

Study Clark (2015): study DE 1992

16+ aged, general public, followed 10 years, Germany, 1992-2012
Survey name
DE-SOEP 1992-2012
N = 368000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Our Classification
Equivalence: 0,5x square root of household size.
Equivalent household income in each year. Sum of all incomes assessed in detailed interview in subsequent years.
1: poor, below 60% of country median
0: not poor

a Incidence of poverty:
    <= 60% of the national median equivalent income
b Intensity of poverty:
    Deprivation score: relative shortfall from the poverty line
c  Chronic poverty:
    Number of periods with relative shortfall below poverty line, incl. depth of poverty (Foster2009)
d  Persistence of poverty:
    number of years in poverty and the length of it for each period (Bossert et al. 2012).

C Realtive poverty gap:
Subjects on average 24% below the poverty line compared to total sample.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d Beta = -.13 p < .01 a INCIDENCE
Men      -.13 (p<.01)
Women    -.13 (p<.01)
Age<=60  -.17 (p<.01)
Age >60  -.02 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d Beta = -.50 p < .01 b INTENSITY
Men      -.53 (p<.01)
Women    -.45 (p<.01)
Age<=60  -.38 (p<.01)
Age >60  -.80 (p<.01
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d Beta = -.07 p < .05 c CHRONIC (Foster index)
Men      -.04 (ns)
Women    -.12 (ns)
Age<=60  -.09 (ns)
Age >60  -.09 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d Beta = +.13 ns c CHRONIC minus PERSISTENCY
Men      +.26 (p<.05)
Women    +.06 (ns)
Age<=60  +.21 (p<.05)
Age >60  -.04 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d Beta = -.57 p < .05 d PERSISTENCE
Men      -.56 (p<.05)
Women    -.59 (p<.05)
Age<=60  -.44 (p<.05)
Age >60  -.86 (p<.05)

Beta's controlled for:
- age
- employed
- residence East or West Germany
- education (years)
- marital status
- number of children in household

Changing the poverty line to 80% produces results for the overall sample that are not significant.
Lowering the poverty line to values below 60% continues to produce significant effects of poverty on life satisfaction, except when lowered to 40%.